Tag Archive: Pacific Ocean


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Sea lions

(NaturalNews) The Marine Mammal Center rescued over a hundred sea lions in a 10-day period off the West Coast of California in the winter of 2015. The influx of stranded sea lions is a sign that the health of the ocean is deteriorating. From January 1 to February 12, 2015, National Geographic counted nearly 500 rescued sea lions, an amount that is alarming scientists. Something has gone awry in the West Coast waters.

The sea lions are not finding food, they are losing strength, and many are starting to wash ashore. The startling trend didn’t start in 2015. The number of stranded sea lions began rising in the winter of 2013, when scientists started noticing waves of sea lion pups washing ashore. Scientists believe the ocean’s temperatures have shifted. Warmer currents may be affecting food sources that the sea lions depend on. Others see problems in ocean water acidity. The animals are being forced to go on longer quests to find food. Many of the pups are being left behind, stranded, while their parents search for food.

One-third of sea lions born last summer wiped out

The death of this sentinel species is an indication of changes in ocean climate and ecosystem. Sea lion prey, which include sardines and crayfish, are reportedly disappearing in numbers as well, forcing the starving sea lions to go on longer quests in search of food. Scientists are concerned about ocean pH and rising acidity of the waters. According to San Jose Mercury News, marine biologists warn that, if the trend continues, an entire generation of California sea lions could be wiped out.

When speaking to NBC News, Sea World San Diego senior veterinarian Hendrick Nollens reported, “We had rescued 19 California sea lions in January [2013]. This year we already rescued 87 pups in that same month. So this event seems to be much larger.”

According to the Daily Breeze, the “unusual mortality event” wiped out two-thirds of the sea lion pup population off the West Coast in 2013.

Rehabilitation centers are taking several hundred pups in this year to save the species from total extinction.

NOAA wildlife biologist Sharon Melin confirmed that most pups captured in the wild in 2013 were only half their weight. After they are released back into the wild, they are expected to maintain their weight. When Melin went on a research trip in September 2013, she reported that the weight of the pups was still low. She brought back the bad news: “We’ve told the centers to prepare for the worst.”

The U-T San Diego concurred, reporting that pups in the Channel Island rookeries continued to struggle despite rehabilitation efforts. On average, pups were 19% below their average weight, even after rehabilitation.

Jim Milbury of NOAA Fisheries says that West Coast sea lions have a birth rate of about 50,000 a year, and San Diego 6 reported on Jan. 28, 2015, that nearly 1 of 3 pups born the previous summer have already died.

If 33% of pups born in 2014 have already died, then based on the average birth rate, over 15,000 have passed away in that short time frame.

Ocean water acidity on the rise, subjecting aquatic life to disease

According to Jennifer Palma of Global News, ocean health is deteriorating, indicated by a die off of scallops and oysters. “Getting pacific oysters and scallops is next to impossible; the industry is in crisis. … So what’s killing the Pacific oysters and scallops? A possible combination of factors including warmer oceans, decreasing acidity levels and potentially disease,” she said in a report.

University of British Columbia marine microbiology professor Curtis Suttle is concerned about changes in the pH of ocean waters. “The hypothesis — there’s a working hypothesis –w is that these changes, these excursions in pH, are making the shellfish vulnerable to infection by diseases that they would normally be resistant to.”

Sources for this article include:

http://enenews.com

http://enenews.com

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http://www.dailybreeze.com

 

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‘Fukushima Fingerprint’: Highest-Yet Radiation Levels Found Off US Coast

‘The changing values underscore the need to more closely monitor contamination levels across the Pacific.’

Scientists test seawater samples off the coast of Japan near the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station. (Photo: IAEA Imagebank/flickr/cc)

Radiation from the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster in Japan has been detected at an increased number of sites off U.S. shores, including the highest level in the area detected to date, scientists announced Thursday.

While the levels are still too low to be considered a threat to human or marine life by the government’s standards, tests of hundreds of samples of Pacific Ocean water reveal that the Fukushima Daiichi plant has continued to leak radioactive isotopes more than four years after the meltdown—and must not be dismissed, according to Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) marine radiochemist Ken Buesseler.

“Despite the fact that the levels of contamination off our shores remain well below government-established safety limits for human health or to marine life, the changing values underscore the need to more closely monitor contamination levels across the Pacific,” Buesseler said Thursday. “[F]inding values that are still elevated off Fukushima confirms that there is continued release from the plant.”

Scientists from the WHOI and Buesseler’s citizen-science project Our Radioactive Ocean discovered trace amounts of cesium-134, the “fingerprint” of Fukushima, in 110 new Pacific samples off U.S. shores in 2015 alone.

The isotope is unique to Fukushima and has a relatively short two-year half life, which means “the only source of this cesium-134 in the Pacific today is from Fukushima,” Buesseler said.

Map shows the location of seawater samples taken by scientists and citizen scientists that were analyzed at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution for radioactive cesium as part of Our Radioactive Ocean. Cesium-137 is found throughout the Pacific Ocean and was detectable in all samples collected, while cesium-134 (yellow/orange dots), an indicator of contamination from Fukushima, has been observed offshore and in select coastal areas. (Figure by Jessica Drysdale, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution)Map shows the location of seawater samples taken by scientists and citizen scientists that were analyzed at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution for radioactive cesium as part of Our Radioactive Ocean. Cesium-137 is found throughout the Pacific Ocean and was detectable in all samples collected, while cesium-134 (yellow/orange dots), an indicator of contamination from Fukushima, has been observed offshore and in select coastal areas. (Figure by Jessica Drysdale, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution)

One sample collected roughly 1,600 miles west of San Francisco revealed the highest radiation level detected to date off the West Coast, the researchers said in a post on the project’s website. “[In] one cubic meter of seawater (about 264 gallons), 11 radioactive decay events per second can be attributed to cesium atoms of both isotopes. That is 50 percent higher than we’ve seen before.”

“[T]hese long-lived radioisotopes will serve as markers for years to come for scientists studying ocean currents and mixing in coastal and offshore waters,” Buesseler continued.

The 2011 accident, prompted by an earthquake and tsunami off Japan’s east coast, was the world’s worst nuclear disaster since Chernobyl in 1986 and resulted in the near-total meltdown of three nuclear reactors at the Fukushima plant and a mass evacuation of the prefecture. Despite ongoing warnings about long-term health and environmental impacts and widespread opposition to nuclear power in the wake of the meltdown, Japan in August restarted a reactor at the Sendai power plant, about 620 miles southwest of Tokyo.

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Hawaii marine biologists celebrate extremely rare footage of the giant Whiplash squid as it glides through the darkest depths of the Pacific

  • The majestic squid is called ‘Taningia Danae’ or ‘whiplash squid’ 
  • Experts say that the whiplash squid has rarely been seen alive 
  • The squid can travel between two and two-and-a-half miles per hour 
  • It attached itself onto a remotely operated underwater vehicle
  • Scientists will study the footage to learn more about the squid

This is the magical moment that National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration scientists captured footage of a rare deep sea squid.

The majestic sea creature, which is around one to two meters long, is called ‘Taningia Danae’ or ‘whiplash squid.’

As it descended to the sea floor of the Pacific Ocean in Hawaii on September 19, 2015 a remotely operated underwater vehicle caught it on camera.

This is the magical moment that NOAA scientists captured footage of a rare deep sea squid

This is the magical moment that NOAA scientists captured footage of a rare deep sea squid

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FORBES

 

New Island Grows Twelve Times Bigger Since Popping Up Two Years Ago

I cover science and innovation and products and policies they create.

A NASA image from 2014

It’s not exactly a Pacific beach resort just yet, but the Japanese Coast Guard reports that a volcanic island that first popped up in the middle of the ocean two years ago has already grown to twelve times its initial size.

Molten rock cooled by the ocean first poked out of the water in November, 2013, when it was initially spotted next to island Nishinoshima, which it eventually grew to engulf.

 

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Bad Astronomy
The entire universe in blog form
April 6 2014 7:45 AM

A New Volcanic Island Swallows Its Older Sister

 

Tens of thousands of years ago, an undersea volcano a thousand kilometers south of Tokyo reached a milestone: Its peak reached the surface of the Pacific Ocean. It became an actual island. For millennia it slept, but in the 1970s a series of eruptions grew the island, which was named Nishinoshima. It was tiny, just a couple of hundred meters across.

But then there were a series of eruptions just south of the island in November 2013, in a still-submerged part of the volcano. This created a second peak, which poked through the water’s surface to become a new island just a few hundred meters from Nishinoshima.

That wouldn’t last: The new island grew as the volcano continued to erupt, and just before New Year’s Day 2014, the new island grew so big it actually connected to the old island. Now there is just one … and it’s still erupting, as you can see in this lovely image taken by the Landsat 8 satellite on March 20, 2014:

nishinoshima island
The new volcanic Nishinoshima Island, seen FROM SPAAAAACE. Click to hephaestenate.

Photo by Jesse Allen and Robert Simmon, usingLandsatdata from the USGSEarth Explorer.

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Mongabay Environmental News

There have been more than 11,000 fires in just one region of the Brazilian Amazon this year

5th November 2015 / Mike Gaworecki

While climate change can certainly exacerbate drought conditions, leading to more frequent wildfires, this year’s ferocious fire season might also have been heavily influenced by the El Niño event developing in the Pacific Ocean.

  • Satellite images revealed that on October 4, 2015 there were over 900 fires burning in the Brazilian Amazon at once.
  • The region most affected by the fires was the northern state of Amazonas, where some 11,114 forest fires were recorded this year.
  • If the Pacific El Niño continues to strengthen, researchers expect fire risk in the Amazon to increase, as well.
On October 4, 2015, satellite images revealed that there were over 900 fires burning in the Brazilian Amazon.That figure was reported by Brazil’s Institute for Space Research, known as INPE, which said that the region most affected by the fires was the northern state of Amazonas. Some 11,114 forest fires have already been observed in Amazonas this year, a 47 percent increase over the same period last year, according to INPE.

Amazonas is not alone in dealing with increased incidence of forest fires. More than a quarter of the fires so far this year have occurred in the Cerrado agricultural region, which encompasses parts of the central states of Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Tocantins and Minas Gerais, for instance.

Meanwhile, Brazil’s southeastern states have been suffering from extreme drought, and a study by researchers at the Carnegie Institution for Science at Stanford University determined that the area of the Amazon affected by mild to severe drought is likely to double in the eastern part of Amazonia and triple in the west by 2100, due largely to the impacts of deforestation.

The Carnegie Institution researchers did not factor rising global temperatures into their calculations, however, meaning drought conditions are likely to be even worse than they projected. That does not bode well for future fire seasons being tamer than 2015.

 

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the guardian

El Niño: food shortages, floods, disease and droughts set to put millions at risk

Agencies warn of unchartered territory as strongest-ever El Niño threatens to batter vulnerable countries with extreme weather for months

Indonesian workers load rice on a truck at Tanjung Priok Port in Jakarta, Indonesia, on 14 November. Indonesia will import about 1.5m tonnes of rice from Vietnam due to the impact of El Niño.
Indonesian workers load rice on a truck at Tanjung Priok Port in Jakarta, Indonesia, on 14 November. Indonesia will import about 1.5m tonnes of rice from Vietnam due to the impact of El Niño. Photograph: Bagus Indahono/EPA

The UN has warned of months of extreme weather in many of the world’s most vulnerable countries with intense storms, droughts and floods triggered by one of the strongest El Niño weather events recorded in 50 years, which is expected to continue until spring 2016.

El Niño is a natural climatic phenomenon that sees equatorial waters in the eastern Pacific ocean warm every few years. This disrupts regular weather patterns such as monsoons and trade winds, and increases the risk of food shortages, floods, disease and forest fires.

This year, a strong El Niño has been building since March and its effects are already being seen in Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya, Malawi, Indonesia and across Central America, according to the World Meteorological Organisation. The phenomenon is also being held responsible for uncontrolled fires in forests in Indonesia and in the Amazon rainforest.

The UN’s World Meteorological Organization warned in a report on Monday that the current strong El Niño is expected to strengthen further and peak around the end of the 2015. “Severe droughts and devastating flooding being experienced throughout the tropics and sub-tropical zones bear the hallmarks of this El Niño, which is the strongest in more than 15 years,” said WMO secretary-general Michel Jarraud.

Jarraud said the impact of the naturally occurring El Niño event was being exacerbated by global warming, which had already led to record temperatures this year. “This event is playing out in uncharted territory. Our planet has altered dramatically because of climate change,” he said. “So this El Niño event and human-induced climate change may interact and modify each other in ways which we have never before experienced. El Niño is turning up the heat even further.”

 

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Business Insider

This year’s El Niño is shaping up to be one of the most powerful on record

el ninoNOAA

If you’ve been paying attention to the weather news at all lately, you’ll know that it’s a big year for a weather event called El Niño.

The complex phenomenon could bring warmer, wetter weather to the Northeast this winter and much-needed rain to California, but worsen cold and drought conditions elsewhere in the US.

And this year’s El Niño could be one of the most powerful on record, experts say.

“One of the strongest El Niño events in the past 65 years is likely to bring significant winter weather to the United States,” James Aman, senior meteorologist at Earth Networks, said in a statement.

What the heck is El Niño, anyway?

El Niño is a weather event characterized by warmer-than-normal temperatures in the equatorial Pacific Ocean, with important consequences for global weather and climate, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. By contrast, La Niña refers to colder-than-normal Pacific temperatures.

The effects of El Niño can be seen across the globe, from increased rainfall in the Southern US and Peru to drought in the Western Pacific and brush fires in Australia.

 

Read More Here

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The Sydney Morning Herald

Date
November 19, 2015 – 7:24AM

Image showing epicentre of Solomon Islands earthquake.Image showing epicentre of Solomon Islands earthquake. Photo: USGS

A strong undersea earthquake has struck off the coast near the Solomon Islands, according to the Bureau of Meteorology.

The bureau initially reported that an earthquake of 7.1 had occurred at 5.31am ADET, which would be classified as a major earthquake, but the intensity was later reported as 6.8, which is considered strong.

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Current date and time is: Nov 19, 2015 08:13 UTC

No Tsunami Warnings, Advisories or Watches are in effect
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Big waves hit Hawaiian Islands’ north shores, California

A surfer watches as a wave breaks at Waimea Bay Beach Park on the North Shore of Oahu, Hawaii, Wednesday, Oct. 28, 2015. The north shores of all the Hawaiian Islands were under a high surf warning on Wednesday, with forecasters expecting 25- to 30-foot waves to mark the start of Hawaii’s big-wave season. (AP Photo/Caleb Jones)

Winston-Salem Journal

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Storm Surge USA State of Hawaii, [Statewide] Damage level Details

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Storm Surge in USA on Thursday, 29 October, 2015 at 04:29 (04:29 AM) UTC.

Description
The north shores of all of the Hawaiian Islands are under a high surf warning, and forecasters expect 25- to 30-foot waves, marking the start of Hawaii’s big-wave season. The swells hitting both Hawaii and California are probably connected to the same low-pressure weather system in the Pacific Ocean, said Derek Wroe, meteorologist with the National Weather Service. “We get our biggest waves in the wintertime, and we’re leading up to that,” Wroe said. Officials on Hawaii’s Big Island closed six beaches because of dangerous surf conditions, and one beach on Maui was closed after waves flooded the parking lot. Wroe warned spectators to keep a distance from the waves because what seems safe could become deadly in a short time. “There’s a whole host of dangers that come with these waves,” he said. On Oahu, a man believed to be in his 50s died late Tuesday when he and two other fishermen were apparently swept out to sea by a large wave, the Honolulu Star-Advertiser reported.

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SFGATE

An earthmover creates a sand berm between oceanfront homes and the water in Seal Beach, Calif., Wednesday, Oct. 28, 2015. There have been no reports so far of coastal flooding as high tides and an arriving swell from a Pacific storm produced big surf along the central and Southern California coast. Waves between 3 and 6 feet pounded some areas where morning high tides were about 7 feet on Wednesday, National Weather Service forecaster Scott Sukop said. Photo: Nick Ut, AP / AP

An earthmover creates a sand berm between oceanfront homes and the water in Seal Beach, Calif., Wednesday, Oct. 28, 2015. There have been no reports so far of coastal flooding as high tides and an arriving swell from a Pacific storm produced big surf along the central and Southern California coast. Waves between 3 and 6 feet pounded some areas where morning high tides were about 7 feet on Wednesday, National Weather Service forecaster Scott Sukop said.

 

HONOLULU (AP) — The latest on the big surf that’s hitting Hawaii and California (all times local):

10:45 a.m.

The north shores of all of the Hawaiian Islands are under a high surf warning, and forecasters expect 25- to 30-foot waves.

Meteorologist Derek Wroe of the National Weather Service says it’s the start of Hawaii’s big-wave season.

He says the swells hitting both Hawaii and California are probably connected to the same low-pressure weather system in the Pacific Ocean.

 

 

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Hurricane Patricia

Author: Kara GilmourBy:
Staff Reporter
Oct, 23, 2015 | 9:22 PM

Hurricane Patricia 2015, the strongest storm ever, grew into a Category 5 on Mexico’s central Pacific Coast late Thursday for what forecasters said could be a devastating blow, as officials declared a state of emergency and handed out sandbags in preparation for flooding, according to Bloomberg.

Steady rain began to fall after dark in Manzanillo, one of the country’s principal ports, ahead of an expected landfall Friday. Luis Felipe Puente, Mexico’s civil defense coordinator, said schools would be closed in Colima state, which is home to Manzanillo.

“We are calm,” said Gabriel Lopez, a worker at Las Hadas Hotel in the city. “We don’t know what direction (the storm) will take, but apparently it’s headed this way. … If there is an emergency we will take care of the people. There are rooms that are not exposed to wind or glass.”

Hurricane Patricia to be devastating, according to National Hurricane Center.

The U.S. National Hurricane Center in Miami warned that preparations should be rushed to completion, saying Hurricane Patricia could cause coastal flooding, destructive waves and flash floods.

“This is an extremely dangerous, potentially catastrophic hurricane,” center meteorologist Dennis Feltgen said.

 

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NBC News
Oct 23 2015, 5:54 pm ET

Hurricane Patricia: Strongest Storm Ever Measured to Hit Mexico

 

Category 5 EPAC hurricane was just sampled by (@NOAA P3). This is the eye radar img 10/23/2015

What Makes a Hurricane Category 5?1:08

Hurricane Patricia became the strongest storm ever measured on the planet early Friday, with experts warning it could trigger 40-foot waves along southwestern Mexico and “life-threatening” flash flooding.

More than 7 million residents — and an estimated tens of thousands of U.S. citizens visiting or living there — were told to prepare for the “worst-case scenario” as the ferocious storm was expected to race ashore on Mexico’s Pacific coast between 6 to 10 p.m. ET Friday.

At 5 p.m. ET, Patricia was about 60 miles west of Manzanillo, and about 110 miles south-southeast of Cabo Corrientes.

The U.S. National Hurricane Center said Patricia was expected to make landfall “in the next several hours.” A hurricane warning was in place for San Blas to Punta San Telmo.

The tourist magnets of Puerto Vallarta and Manzanillo were directly in the Category 5 storm’s projected path, and Puerto Vallarta’s airport was closed Friday out of precaution as some stranded vacationers described their inability to fly out of a “nightmare.”

By 5 p.m. winds had weakened slightly to 190 mph, the Hurricane Center said. Winds of 200 mph were measured earlier, and the Hurricane Center labeled Patricia as the “strongest hurricane on record” in the Atlantic and eastern North Pacific Basins.

Mexico has not formally requested help from the U.S., but State Department spokesman Mark Toner told reporters Friday that America “stands up to offer any assistance that we can in the aftermath of what at least appears to be a pretty epic event in terms of the intensity and size of the storm.”

 

 

Read More and Watch Videos Here

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BREAKING
NBC News
Oct 23 2015, 9:21 pm ET

‘Extraordinarily Dangerous’ Category 5 Hurricane Patricia Makes Landfall in Mexico

An “extraordinarily dangerous” category 5 hurricane slammed into southwestern Mexico Friday night, bringing lashing winds and rainfall that has the potential to create life-threatening flash floods.

Hurricane Patricia made landfall near Cuixmala, west-northwest of Manzanillo, carrying 165 mph winds at 6:15 p.m. local time (7:15 p.m. ET), according to the National Hurricane Center. Palm trees bent and rain whipped in sideways as the storm made its first appearance on land.

Patricia’s “potentially catastrophic landfall” would affect a stretch of coast between the popular tourist destinations of Puerto Vallarta and Manzanillo, the World Meteorological Organization said. Hurricane force winds covered 35 miles, while tropical storm force winds extended 175 miles, according to the NHC.

More than 7 million people were in the storm’s path.

Rainfall amounts of up to a foot in a short span of time between Friday night and Saturday over the Mexican states of Nayarit, Jalisco, Colima, Michoacán and Guerrero could trigger “life-threatening flash floods and mud slides,” according to the National Hurricane Center.

Jalisco was already seeing destruction from the storm Friday afternoon, according to state police. The state, which encompasses Puerto Vallarta and the Guadalajara metro area, had 1,075 shelters set up, according to the Ministry of Communications and Transportation.

About 3,500 people were evacuated from the region ahead of the storm, and airlifts were prepared to rescue people from the region on Saturday.

 

Read More nd Watch Videos Here

 

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New York Times

MEXICO CITY — The strongest hurricane to ever assault the Western Hemisphere slammed into Mexico’s southwest Pacific Coast on Friday evening, transforming hotels into makeshift shelters, shuttering schools, closing airports and sending inhabitants racing to bus stations to flee inland.

The storm, named Hurricane Patricia, was packing winds of about 165 miles per hour as it struck land, having slowed considerably from earlier speeds of about 200 miles per hour as it spun toward a coastline dotted with tiny fishing villages and five-star resorts in cities like Puerto Vallarta.

As the outer wall of the hurricane swept over the coast at 6:15 p.m., the authorities reported trees being knocked down and landslides taking place along the road between the city of Colima and the port city of Manzanillo. Light poles were quickly toppled and roofs torn off.

Less than an hour later, the National Hurricane Center said the hurricane was barreling inland over southwestern Mexico with maximum sustained wind speeds of 160 m.p.h. and remained “extremely dangerous.”

Photo

An employee boarded up a store in the Pacific coastal resort of Puerto Vallarta on Friday. The rapid strengthening of the storm caught many people off guard. Credit Henry Romero/Reuters

The government of Mexico had already declared a state of emergency in dozens of municipalities in the states of Colima, Nayarit and Jalisco. Residents had stacked sandbags around properties and rushed to grocery stores to stock up on supplies.

By noon, there were no more bus tickets to buy or gas to pump in order to evacuate, some residents said. Lines at neighborhood grocery stores, hours long earlier in the day, suddenly disappeared. Those who made it out were long gone. The rest were stuck to weather out the monster storm.

Read More Here

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Globe with Earthquake Location

M7.3 – VANUATU

Preliminary Earthquake Report
Magnitude 7.3
Date-Time
  • 20 Oct 2015 21:52:02 UTC
  • 21 Oct 2015 08:52:02 near epicenter
  • 20 Oct 2015 15:52:02 standard time in your timezone
Location 14.861S 167.307E
Depth 131 km
Distances
  • 34 km (21 mi) NE of Port-Olry, Vanuatu
  • 75 km (46 mi) NNE of Luganville, Vanuatu
  • 335 km (207 mi) NNW of Port-Vila, Vanuatu
  • 670 km (415 mi) N of We, New Caledonia
  • 810 km (502 mi) N of Paita, New Caledonia
Location Uncertainty Horizontal: 7.6 km; Vertical 5.6 km
Parameters Nph = 111; Dmin = 66.0 km; Rmss = 0.85 seconds; Gp = 32°
Version =
Event ID us 10003q0q

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2 earthquakes in map area

  1. M 4.7 – 48km ENE of Port-Olry, Vanuatu

    2015-10-20 22:31:09 UTC 123.1 km

  2. M 7.1 – 35km NE of Port-Olry, Vanuatu

    2015-10-20 21:52:02 UTC 127.0 km

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Current date and time is: Oct 20, 2015 23:45 UTC

No Tsunami Warnings, Advisories or Watches are in effect
Tsunami Alerts issued by NWS in the past 7 days
Time (UTC)
Alert Region ( ? )
Alert Type ( ? )
Magnitude
Details
Issuing Office
Oct 20, 2015 21:59
Alaska/BC/US West Coast
Public Information
7.3
Oct 20, 2015 21:58
Hawaii
Information
7.3
Oct 20, 2015 21:57
Pacific Ocean
Information
7.3
Oct 16, 2015 18:09
Alaska/BC/US West Coast
Information
4.0

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