Tag Archive: Goddard Space Flight Center

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Red Blood Cells and Smart Meters

smart_meter_bloodBy Catherine J. Frompovich

For those who wonder if there are any health issues or problems from exposure to Smart Meters and the electromagnetic frequencies they emit, here is a short video which shows three samples of blood examined using a Darkfield Microscope.


The video is self-explanatory, as the samples clearly show morphological responses or reactions. That kind of constant exposure with apparent human cellular morphological reactions—as will happen when a Smart Meter is placed on a dwelling—undoubtedly occurs, as EMFs/RFs are emitted 24/7/365. Consequently, it will be only a matter of time, depending upon each individual’s electromagnetic sensitivities threshold, before adverse health consequences materialize.

Below is a chart created by EMF researcher Ronald M. Powell, PhD, which is self-explanatory? [3]


exposure chart


The above graphic shows that 67 peer-reviewed, repeated studies show significant health issues (e.g. cancer, tumors, infertility) at levels far below the government safety standards (gray line). The yellow line is what the standards should be if public safety is considered. Source


In another paper, “Electronicmagnetic Field Interactions With the Human Body: Observed Effects and Theories,” (NASA, April 1981) presented to the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771, on page 23, we find this:

Adverse, Benign, and Curious Effects

The effects listed and/or discussed in this section relate to at least three of the five senses (touch, hearing, and sight) and nearly every system of the human body (including circulatory, digestive, nervous, and muscular). Many of them are temporary; however, some result in death and persistent disease. Some are better understood and more widely accepted than others. [1] [CJF emphasis added]

In 1981, NASA knew of numerous health problems, which are now classified as “Non-Thermal Health Effects,” which were cited on page 30 of that report:

  • Headaches
  • Eyestrain
  • Fatigue
  • Dizziness
  • Disturbed sleep at night
  • Sleepiness in daytime
  • Moodiness
  • Irritability
  • Unsociability
  • Hypochondriac reactions
  • Feelings of fear
  • Nervous tension
  • Mental depression
  • Memory impairment
  • Pulling sensation in the scalp and brow
  • Loss of hair
  • Pain in muscles and heart region
  • Breathing difficulties
  • Increased perspiration of extremities
  • Difficulty with sex life


Read More Here




How to Make A Smart Meter Cover




Published on Mar 20, 2014

This video will show you how to make a Smart Meter Cover if you have concerns about the health and safety standards of Smart Meter radiation. This faraday cage will significantly decrease the power level signals coming out the front and back of the smart meter. Using a mesh screen (aluminum or galvanized steel) will allow enough of the signal to pass so that your utility company can still read the meter.




Earth Watch Report  –  Solar Activity



Space Weather

by Dr. Tony Phillips.


Imagine what it would be like if, from time to time, a hole opened up in Earth’s atmosphere and air went blowing out into space. On the sun, this happens all the time. The openings are called “coronal holes.” NASA’s Solar Dynamics Obervatory is monitoring one right now; it is the dark wedge-shaped region in this extreme ultraviolet image of the sun’s southern hemisphere:

Coronal holes are places in the sun’s atmosphere where the magnetic field bends back and allows gas to escape. From such openings, solar wind blows out into space. A stream of solar wind flowing from this particular coronal hole could reach Earth on May 11-12, sparking auroras when it arrives. On the other hand, the stream might sail south of our planet, delivering only a glancing blow. Stay tuned for updates.



Huge square-shaped ‘coronal hole’ spotted on Sun (VIDEO)

Published time: May 13, 2014 12:00



A gigantic square hole has been video-captured on the Sun’s surface by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The particularly large monstrosity, known as a “coronal hole”, is an indicator of solar winds ejected out of the star at insane speeds.


Read More and Watch Video Here



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Friday 14 March 2014 14.28 EDT

Natural and social scientists develop new model of how ‘perfect storm’ of crises could unravel global system
This NASA Earth Observatory released on

This Nasa Earth Observatory image shows a storm system circling around an area of extreme low pressure in 2010, which many scientists attribute to climate change. Photograph: AFP/Getty Images

A new study sponsored by Nasa’s Goddard Space Flight Center has highlighted the prospect that global industrial civilisation could collapse in coming decades due to unsustainable resource exploitation and increasingly unequal wealth distribution.

Noting that warnings of ‘collapse’ are often seen to be fringe or controversial, the study attempts to make sense of compelling historical data showing that “the process of rise-and-collapse is actually a recurrent cycle found throughout history.” Cases of severe civilisational disruption due to “precipitous collapse – often lasting centuries – have been quite common.”

The research project is based on a new cross-disciplinary ‘Human And Nature DYnamical’ (HANDY) model, led by applied mathematician Safa Motesharri of the US National Science Foundation-supported National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center, in association with a team of natural and social scientists. The study based on the HANDY model has been accepted for publication in the peer-reviewed Elsevier journal, Ecological Economics.

It finds that according to the historical record even advanced, complex civilisations are susceptible to collapse, raising questions about the sustainability of modern civilisation:

“The fall of the Roman Empire, and the equally (if not more) advanced Han, Mauryan, and Gupta Empires, as well as so many advanced Mesopotamian Empires, are all testimony to the fact that advanced, sophisticated, complex, and creative civilizations can be both fragile and impermanent.”

By investigating the human-nature dynamics of these past cases of collapse, the project identifies the most salient interrelated factors which explain civilisational decline, and which may help determine the risk of collapse today: namely, Population, Climate, Water, Agriculture, and Energy.

These factors can lead to collapse when they converge to generate two crucial social features: “the stretching of resources due to the strain placed on the ecological carrying capacity”; and “the economic stratification of society into Elites [rich] and Masses (or “Commoners”) [poor]” These social phenomena have played “a central role in the character or in the process of the collapse,” in all such cases over “the last five thousand years.”

Currently, high levels of economic stratification are linked directly to overconsumption of resources, with “Elites” based largely in industrialised countries responsible for both:

“… accumulated surplus is not evenly distributed throughout society, but rather has been controlled by an elite. The mass of the population, while producing the wealth, is only allocated a small portion of it by elites, usually at or just above subsistence levels.”

The study challenges those who argue that technology will resolve these challenges by increasing efficiency:

“Technological change can raise the efficiency of resource use, but it also tends to raise both per capita resource consumption and the scale of resource extraction, so that, absent policy effects, the increases in consumption often compensate for the increased efficiency of resource use.”

Productivity increases in agriculture and industry over the last two centuries has come from “increased (rather than decreased) resource throughput,” despite dramatic efficiency gains over the same period.

Read More Here

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2013’s Summer Arctic Sea Ice a Top 10 Low

Arctic sea ice
A satellite image of Arctic sea ice snapped on Sept. 12, 2013.
Credit: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio

It’s official: The Arctic icepack reached its summer low on Sept. 13, the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) in Boulder, Colo., said today (Sept. 20).

The Arctic ice cover melted down to 1.97 million square miles (5.10 million square kilometers) — about the size of Texas and California combined.

The final tally puts 2013 in sixth place out of the top 10 record low ice years since tracking began with satellites 30 years ago. It also continues an overall downward trend in the extent of summer sea ice, the NSIDC said. (2012 is the top record holder, with the lowest summer ice extent ever recorded.)

The rebound in ice cover after a record low year was expected, Walt Meier, a glaciologist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., said in a statement. “There is always a tendency to have an uptick after an extreme low; in our satellite data, the Arctic sea ice has never set record low minimums in consecutive years. [Video: Watch the 2013 summer ice melt]

Read More Here

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While there is, on average, only one supernova per galaxy per century, there is something on the order of 100 billion galaxies in the observable Universe. Taking 10 billion years for the age of the Universe (it’s actually 13.7 billion, but stars didn’t form for the first few hundred million), Dr. Richard Mushotzky of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, derived a figure of 1 billion supernovae per year, or 30 supernovae per second in the observable Universe. Now, scientists at the Technische Universitaet Muenchen have discovered the first proven biological evidence of a nearby supernova explosion on earth, finding hints of supernova iron in bacteria microfossils.

Researchers of the Cluster of Excellence Origin and Structure of the Universe at the Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), found a radioactive iron isotope in fossils of iron-loving bacteria that they trace back to a supernova in our cosmic neighborhood. This is the first proven biological signature of a starburst on our earth. The age determination of the deep-drill core from the Pacific Ocean showed that the supernova must have occurred about 2.2 million years ago, roughly around the time when the modern human developed.

Most of the chemical elements have their origin in core collapse supernovae. When a star ends its life in a gigantic starburst, it throws most of its mass into space. The radioactive iron isotope Fe-60 is produced almost exclusively in such supernovae. Because its half-life of 2.62 million years is short compared to the age of our solar system, no supernova iron should be present on Earth. Therefore, any discovery of Fe-60 on Earth would indicate a supernova in our cosmic neighborhood. In the year 2004 scientists at TU Muenchen discovered Fe-60 on Earth for the first time in a ferromanganese crust obtained from the floor of the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Its geological dating puts the event around 2.2 million years ago.


Read Full Article Here

Published on Apr 5, 2013

Jakobshavn Glacier, one of the fastest moving glaciers in Greenland, has been the focus of IceBridge survey flights for five consecutive years. Here, images from an IceBridge mission on Apr. 4, 2013 and video footage from the 2012 Arctic campaign show this rapidly changing ice stream and how IceBridge is using its suite of airborne instruments to collect crucial data on ice movement and how much glaciers like Jakobshavn might contribute to future sea level rise.

This video is public domain and can be downloaded at: http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/a010000/…

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The calm before the solar storm? NASA warns ‘something unexpected is happening to the Sun’

  • 2013 was due to be year of the ‘solar maximum’
  • As this picture shows, in fact the sun is incredibly calm – baffling experts

By Mark Prigg



This year was supposed to be the year of ‘solar maximum,’ the peak of the 11-year sunspot cycle.

But as this image reveals, solar activity is relatively low.


Sunspot numbers are well below their values from 2011, and strong solar flares have been infrequent, as this image shows - despite Nasa forecasting major solar stormsSunspot numbers are well below their values from 2011, and strong solar flares have been infrequent, as this image shows – despite Nasa forecasting major solar storms



Conventional wisdom holds that solar activity swings back and forth like a simple pendulum.

At one end of the cycle, there is a quiet time with few sunspots and flares.

At the other end, solar max brings high sunspot numbers and frequent solar storms.

It’s a regular rhythm that repeats every 11 years.

Reality is more complicated.

Astronomers have been counting sunspots for centuries, and they have seen that the solar cycle is not perfectly regular.

‘Sunspot numbers are well below their values from 2011, and strong solar flares have been infrequent,’ the space agency says.

The image above shows the Earth-facing surface of the Sun on February 28, 2013, as observed by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory.

It observed just a few small sunspots on an otherwise clean face, which is usually riddled with many spots during peak solar activity.

Experts have been baffled by the apparent lack of activity – with many wondering if NASA simply got it wrong.

However, Solar physicist Dean Pesnell of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center believes he has a different explanation.

‘This is solar maximum,’ he says.

‘But it looks different from what we expected because it is double-peaked.’

‘The last two solar maxima, around 1989 and 2001, had not one but two peaks.’

Solar activity went up, dipped, then rose again, performing a mini-cycle that lasted about two years, he said.

Earth Watch Report  –  Solar  Activity

Space weather .com

EARTH-DIRECTED ERUPTION: On Saturday, February 9th, around 0640 UT, a magnetic filament in the sun’s northern hemisphere erupted, hurling a coronal mass ejection (CME) toward Earth. NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory captured the UV flash from the underlying C2-class solar flare:

The CME, which was captured in flight by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, billowed away from the sun at 800 km/s. The bulk of the cloud looks like it will sail north of Earth. Nevertheless, a glancing blow is possible as shown in this 3D model of the CME prepared by analysts at the Goddard Space Flight Center. High-latitude sky watchers should be alert for auroras on Feb. 12th when the CME passes by.

Planetary K-index
Now: Kp= 1 quiet
24-hr max: Kp= 1 quiet
explanation | more data

Interplanetary Mag. Field
Btotal: 4.5 nT
Bz: 1.5 nT south
explanation | more data
Updated: Today at 0217 UT

Coronal Holes: 12 Feb 13

Solar wind flowing from this coronal holes could brush against Earth’s magnetic field on Feb. 12. Credit: SDO/AIA.

NOAA Forecasts

Updated at: 2013 Feb 10 2200 UTC

0-24 hr
24-48 hr
10 %
10 %
01 %
01 %

Geomagnetic Storms:
Probabilities for significant disturbances in Earth’s magnetic field are given for three activity levels: active, minor storm, severe storm

Updated at: 2013 Feb 10 2200 UTC


0-24 hr
24-48 hr
10 %
10 %
01 %
05 %
01 %
01 %

High latitudes

0-24 hr
24-48 hr
15 %
15 %
15 %
20 %
10 %
20 %

4MIN News February 10, 2013: Quake Watch Recap, 2 Volcanos, Flare/CME Update

Published on Feb 10, 2013

Important Video: http://youtu.be/_yy3YJBOw_o

An Unlikely but Relevant Risk: The Solar Killshot: http://youtu.be/X0KJ_dxp170

Alaska Coast: http://www.newser.com/story/162182/al…
GONG MagMaps: http://gong.nso.edu/data/magmap/ondem…


NDBC Buoys: http://www.ndbc.noaa.gov/
Tropical Storms: http://www.wunderground.com/tropical/
HurricaneZone Satellite Images: http://www.hurricanezone.net/westpaci…
Weather Channel: http://www.weather.com/
NOAA Environmental Visualization Laboratory: http://www.nnvl.noaa.gov/Default.php
Pressure Maps: http://www.woweather.com/cgi-bin/expe…
Satellite Maps: http://www.woweather.com/cgi-app/sate…
Forecast Maps: http://www.woweather.com/weather/maps…
EL DORADO WORLD WEATHER MAP: http://www.eldoradocountyweather.com/…
TORCON: http://www.weather.com/news/tornado-t… [Tornado Forecast for the day]
HURRICANE TRACKER: http://www.weather.com/weather/hurric…

Precipitation Totals: http://www.cocorahs.org/ViewData/List…
GOES Satellites: http://rsd.gsfc.nasa.gov/goes/
THE WINDMAP: http://hint.fm/wind/
Severe Weather Threats: http://www.weather.com/news/weather-s…
Canada Weather Office Satellite Composites: http://www.weatheroffice.gc.ca/satell…
Temperature Delta: http://www.intellicast.com/National/T…
Records/Extremes: http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/extremes/rec…

Spaceweather: http://spaceweather.com
SOHO Solar Wind: http://umtof.umd.edu/pm/
HAARP Data Meters: http://www.haarp.alaska.edu/haarp/dat…
Planetary Orbital Diagram – Ceres1 JPL: http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/sbdb.cgi?sstr…
SDO: http://sdo.gsfc.nasa.gov/data/
Helioviewer: http://www.helioviewer.org/
SOHO: http://sohodata.nascom.nasa.gov/cgi-b…
Stereo: http://stereo.gsfc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/i…
SOLARIMG: http://solarimg.org/artis/
iSWA: http://iswa.gsfc.nasa.gov/iswa/iSWA.html
NASA ENLIL SPIRAL: http://iswa.gsfc.nasa.gov:8080/IswaSy…
NOAA ENLIL SPIRAL: http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/wsa-enlil/
GOES Xray: http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/sxi/goes15/i…
Gamma Ray Bursts: http://grb.sonoma.edu/
BARTOL Cosmic Rays: http://neutronm.bartol.udel.edu//spac…
ISWA: http://iswa.ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov:8080/I…
NOAA Sunspot Classifications: http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/ftpdir/lates…
GONG: http://gong2.nso.edu/dailyimages/

MISC Links:
JAPAN Radiation Map: http://jciv.iidj.net/map/
RADIATION Network: http://radiationnetwork.com/
LISS: http://earthquake.usgs.gov/monitoring…
QUAKES LIST FULL: http://www.emsc-csem.org/Earthquake/s…
RSOE: http://hisz.rsoe.hu/alertmap/index2.php [That cool alert map I use]
Moon: http://www.fourmilab.ch/earthview/pac…

Earth Watch Report –  Extreme  Weather


NASA Sees the Major Midwestern Snowstorm in Infrared Light

by Rob Gutro for Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt, MD (SPX)

On Dec. 21 at 2:29 a.m. EST, the AIRS instrument aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite captured this infrared image of the massive low pressure area that caused a major snowstorm in the Midwest and beyond. The darkest blue and purple (-63.6 Fahrenheit/-53.5 Celsius) areas indicate the highest clouds and coldest cloud top temperatures, where precipitation is heaviest. Credit: NASA JPL, Ed Olsen. Download NOAA’s GOES-13 satellite animation of the storm here.

 The AIRS infrared image was false-color enhanced to show temperatures. In the false color image, the darkest blue and purple areas indicate the highest clouds and coldest cloud top temperatures, where precipitation is heaviest.

Those coldest cloud top temperatures were near 220 kelvin (-63.6 Fahrenheit/-53.5 Celsius) and were over the New England states and southeastern Canada. Those were also areas where the heaviest precipitation was falling.

The infrared image also showed that the low pressure center of circulation was located over northern Ohio. The southern extent of the storm brought wind damage to Alabama and spawned tornadoes in Arkansas. AIRS imagery is created at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif.

According to USA today, the storm had taken at least eight lives, caused about 1,000 flight cancelations and power outages, caused closures of schools and government offices, multiple car accidents and road closures and dropped more than a foot of snow in parts of Wisconsin and Iowa.

The National Weather Service noted that the storm system caused Blizzard Warnings in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois and Iowa. The storm also triggered Winter Weather Advisories from Washington state to Maine and covered parts of 17 states.

NOAA’s GOES-13 satellite monitors weather over the eastern half of the U.S. from a fixed orbit in space. Imagery from GOES-13 was compiled into an animation by NASA’s GOES Project at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. that showed the movement of the storm from Dec.19 through the morning of Dec. 21.

Over that time, the animation shows a long line of clouds from a cold front that stretched from Canada to the U.S. Gulf Coast move west to east. The cold front is associated with a low pressure center that moves in from the west as the animation begins and reaches northern Ohio by the time the animation ends on Dec. 21 at 1445 UTC (9:45 a.m. EST).

On Dec. 21, the National Weather Service noted “Blizzard and Winter Storm Warnings remain in effect through Friday night (Dec. 21) or Saturday (Dec. 22) for the Great Lakes and central Appalachians, where heavy snow will combine with strong winds to produce dangerous travel conditions.”


Related Links
Earth at NASA
It’s A White Out at TerraDaily.com

Crossroads News : Changes In The World Around Us And Our Place In It

Environmental  :  Climate Change & Research

NASA’s IceBridge Seeking New View of Changing Sea Ice


by George Hale for Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt MD (SPX)

This diagram shows the relationship between snow and sea ice. The amount of ice above the water’s surface is proportional to what lies below. Snow cover can lead to incorrect thickness estimates if not accounted for. Credit: NASA. For a larger version of this image please go here.

This year scientists working on NASA’s Operation IceBridge, a multi-year airborne science mission to study changing ice conditions at both poles, debuted a new data product with the potential to improve Arctic sea ice forecasts.

Using new data processing techniques, IceBridge scientists were able to release an experimental quick look product before the end of the 2012 Arctic campaign. The main challenge faced when producing data for seasonal forecasts is the time needed to crunch the numbers, something that has in the past taken IceBridge scientists more than six months to do after the data was collected in the spring. This is too late to use for Arctic sea ice forecasts of the annual seasonal minimum, which takes place in September.

The new product could potentially be used in seasonal sea ice forecasts in the future. “The community is excited about it,” said IceBridge science team co-lead Jackie Richter-Menge of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Cold Regions Research Laboratory, Hanover, N.H. “We’re hoping to build on this season’s momentum and interest.”

Scientists have been keeping an eye on Arctic sea ice in recent years because it is changing and they want to understand what those changes might mean. Arctic sea ice grows and recedes in a seasonal pattern, with a maximum coverage in March and a minimum in September.

These high and low points vary from year to year, but there is a clear trend toward smaller minimums that mean more open water in the Arctic each summer and fall. This decrease in ice is already affecting ocean and terrestrial life in the Arctic, accelerating warming in the region and leading to economic and social changes.

“Sea ice is a sensitive indicator of a changing climate,” said NASA researcher Nathan Kurtz at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. It can also act as a feedback to warming in the Arctic. Because ice is much lighter in color than ocean water it has a higher albedo, meaning it reflects more sunlight than water.

“A loss of sea ice can cause the Earth as a whole to warm,” Kurtz said. The loss of sea ice has also been linked to shifts in weather patterns and distribution of nutrients in the ocean.

Getting the Whole Picture
Sea ice modulates a complex interaction between two systems-the ocean and the atmosphere-and is affected by a number of factors. Surface temperature is the one that most readily comes to mind. Warming air and ocean temperatures melt the ice over time. But ice thickness and the amount of snow that accumulates on it are important in controlling the amount of growth and melt. As anyone who has been to a summer barbecue knows, larger masses of ice melt slower than smaller ones. Thicker sea ice will stay around longer than thin ice.

The largest portion of sea ice is hidden under the water’s surface, which makes measuring its thickness trickier than getting its extent. To find thickness, researchers rely on a variety of advanced instruments and a law of physics that goes back to ancient Greece-the Archimedes Principle. “If you know how much ice is above the water and know its density, you can calculate the thickness,” said Kurtz.

“On average 80 to 90 percent of the ice is below the surface.” With this knowledge, it’s possible to take the ice freeboard, the amount above the water’s surface, and calculate its thickness. IceBridge’s Airborne Topographic Mapper, or ATM, instrument uses a laser to measure how high the ice surface is above sea level. But snow accumulation means that what ATM measures is not just ice. To address this complication, IceBridge uses one of its radar instruments to measure snow thickness, and then with simple subtraction, researchers can figure out the true ice freeboard.

It’s important to factor for snow thickness because while it adds height to sea ice, it adds less mass than an equivalent thickness of ice. But snow thickness is a valuable measurement in its own right. “There’s growing interest in our snow depth measurements as a stand-alone product,” Richter-Menge said.

Snow affects how sea ice grows and melts by insulating it, slowing growth, and further increasing albedo as snow is even lighter colored than ice. But snow can also speed up melting. Snow melts, forming ponds of water that-due to increased albedo-absorb more heat than either snow or ice would. Snow also plays a role in the Arctic ecosystem. “For instance, snow needs to be a certain depth for the survival of seal pups,” said Richter-Menge.

Putting It All Together
Creating a new data product calls for new processing methods and a good understanding of how data are collected. To facilitate this, Kurtz traveled to Greenland during the 2012 Arctic campaign. For about two weeks in March, Kurtz participated in survey flights on the NASA P-3B aircraft to see how instrument operators gathered sea ice data. “I asked a lot of questions,” Kurtz said.

“And I got a good impression for a short stay.” Although it is tempting to use this data in this year’s seasonal forecasts, both Kurtz and Richter-Menge caution that while they are optimistic about the new product, it still needs testing. After the upcoming sea ice minimum, researchers can compare the quick look and traditional products and test models using the quick look data against observations. “As the season goes on, we’ll see how useful the quick look product is,” Richter-Menge said.

Next year’s Arctic campaign will see further refinement of the methods used to create the quick look product. “The key is knowing how to deal with the data,” Kurtz said. He plans to return to Greenland in 2013 to work on ways to speed up processing. “I learned a lot this year,” Kurtz said. “It should be easier now that I’ve done it once.”

For more information on the Airborne Topographic Mapper and snow radar instruments.


Related Links
Beyond the Ice Age