Tag Archive: glyphosate


Health and Wellness Report Banner photo FSPLogoBannerHealthandWellness831x338Blogger_zps68b43460.jpg          Global Community Report Banner photo FSPLogoGlobalCommunityFulloldworldmapbckgrnd_zps43d3059c.jpg

…………………………………………………………………………………….

 

 

 

Read More Here

 

Read More Here

Abstract

Background

The health effects of a Roundup-tolerant NK603 genetically modified (GM) maize (from 11% in the diet), cultivated with or without Roundup application and Roundup alone (from 0.1 ppb of the full pesticide containing glyphosate and adjuvants) in drinking water, were evaluated for 2 years in rats. This study constitutes a follow-up investigation of a 90-day feeding study conducted by Monsanto in order to obtain commercial release of this GMO, employing the same rat strain and analyzing biochemical parameters on the same number of animals per group as our investigation. Our research represents the first chronic study on these substances, in which all observations including tumors are reported chronologically. Thus, it was not designed as a carcinogenicity study. We report the major findings with 34 organs observed and 56 parameters analyzed at 11 time points for most organs.

Results

Biochemical analyses confirmed very significant chronic kidney deficiencies, for all treatments and both sexes; 76% of the altered parameters were kidney-related. In treated males, liver congestions and necrosis were 2.5 to 5.5 times higher. Marked and severe nephropathies were also generally 1.3 to 2.3 times greater. In females, all treatment groups showed a two- to threefold increase in mortality, and deaths were earlier. This difference was also evident in three male groups fed with GM maize. All results were hormone- and sex-dependent, and the pathological profiles were comparable. Females developed large mammary tumors more frequently and before controls; the pituitary was the second most disabled organ; the sex hormonal balance was modified by consumption of GM maize and Roundup treatments. Males presented up to four times more large palpable tumors starting 600 days earlier than in the control group, in which only one tumor was noted. These results may be explained by not only the non-linear endocrine-disrupting effects of Roundup but also by the overexpression of the EPSPS transgene or other mutational effects in the GM maize and their metabolic consequences.

Conclusion

Our findings imply that long-term (2 year) feeding trials need to be conducted to thoroughly evaluate the safety of GM foods and pesticides in their full commercial formulations.

Keywords:

Genetically modified; GMO; Roundup; NK603; Rat; Glyphosate-based herbicides; Endocrine disruption

Research

Empirical natural and social sciences produce knowledge (in German: Wissenschaften schaffen Wissen) which should describe and explain past and present phenomena and estimate their future development. To this end quantitative methods are used. Progress in science needs controversial debates aiming at the best methods as basis for objective, reliable and valid results approximating what could be the truth. Such methodological competition is the energy needed for scientific progress. In this sense, ESEU aims to enable rational discussions dealing with the article from G.-E. Séralini et al. (Food Chem. Toxicol. 2012, 50:4221–4231) by re-publishing it. By doing so, any kind of appraisal of the paper’s content should not be connoted. The only aim is to enable scientific transparency and, based on this, a discussion which does not hide but aims to focus methodological controversies. -Winfried Schröder, Editor of the Thematic Series “Implications for GMO-cultivation and monitoring” in Environmental Sciences Europe.

Background

There is an ongoing international debate as to the necessary length of mammalian toxicity studies, including metabolic analyses, in relation to the consumption of genetically modified (GM) plants [1]. Currently, no regulatory authority requires mandatory chronic animal feeding studies to be performed for edible genetically modified organisms (GMOs), or even short-term studies with blood analyses for the full commercial formulations of pesticides as sold and used, but only for the declared active principle alone. However, several 90-day rat feeding trials have been conducted by the agricultural biotechnology industry. These investigations mostly concern GM soy and maize that are engineered either to be herbicide-tolerant (to Roundup (R) in 80% of cases), or to produce a modified Bt toxin insecticide, or both. As a result, these GM crops contain new pesticide residues for which new maximum residue levels (MRL) have been established in some countries.

Though the petitioners conclude in general that no major physiological changes is attributable to the consumption of the GMO in subchronic toxicity studies [25], significant disturbances have been found and may be interpreted differently [6,7]. A detailed analysis of the data in the subchronic toxicity studies [25] has revealed statistically significant alterations in kidney and liver function that may constitute signs of the early onset of chronic toxicity. This may be explained at least in part by pesticide residues in the GM feed [6,7]. Indeed, it has been demonstrated that R concentrations in the range of 103 times below the MRL can induce endocrine disturbances in human cells [8] and toxic effects thereafter [9]. This may explain toxic effects seen in experiments in rats in vivo[10] as well as in farm animals [11]. After several months of consumption of an R-tolerant soy, the liver and pancreas of mice were affected, as highlighted by disturbances in sub-nuclear structure [1214]. Furthermore, this toxic effect was reproduced by the application of R herbicide directly to hepatocytes in culture [15].

More recently, long-term and multi-generational animal feeding trials have been performed, with some possibly providing evidence of safety, while others conclude on the necessity of further investigation because of metabolic modifications [16]. However, in contrast with the study we report here, none of these previous investigations have included a detailed follow-up of the animals, including multiple (up to 11) blood and urine sampling over 2 years, and none has investigated either the GM NK603 R-tolerant maize or Roundup.

Furthermore, evaluation of long-term toxicity of herbicides is generally performed on mammalian physiology employing only their active principle, rather than the complete formulations as used in agriculture. This was the case for glyphosate (G) [17], the declared active chemical constituent of R. It is important to note that G is only able to efficiently penetrate target plant organisms with the help of adjuvants present in the various commercially used R formulations [18]. Even if G has shown to interact directly with the active site of aromatase at high levels [19], at low contaminating levels, adjuvants may be better candidates than G to explain the toxicity or endocrine disruptive side effects of R on human cells [8,20] and also in vivo for acute toxicity [21]. In this regard, it is noteworthy that the far greater toxicity of full agricultural formulations compared to declared supposed active principles alone has recently been demonstrated also for six other major pesticides tested in vitro[22]. When G residues are found in tap water, food, or feed, they arise from the total herbicide formulation although little data is available as to the levels of the R adjuvants in either the environment or food chain. Indeed, adjuvants are rarely monitored in the environment, but some widely used adjuvants (surfactants) such as nonylphenol ethoxylates, another ethoxylated surfactant like POEA present in R, are widely found in rivers in England and are linked with disruption of wildlife sexual reproduction [23]. Adjuvants are found in groundwater [24]. The half-life of POEA (21 to 42 days) is even longer than for G (7 to 14 days) in aquatic environments [25]. As a result, the necessity of studying the potential toxic effects of total chemical mixtures rather than single components has been strongly emphasized [2628]. On this basis, the regular measurement of only G or other supposed active ingredients of pesticides in the environment constitute at best markers of full formulation residues. Thus, in the study of health effects, exposure to the diluted whole formulation may be more representative of environmental pollution than exposure to G alone.

With a view to address this lack of information, we performed a 2-year detailed rat feeding study. Our study was designed as a chronic toxicity study and as a direct follow-up to a previous investigation on the same NK603 GM maize conducted by the developer company, Monsanto [3]. A detailed critical analysis of the raw data of this subchronic 90-day rat feeding study revealed statistically significant differences in multiple organ function parameters, especially pertaining to the liver and kidneys, between the GM and non-GM maize-fed group [3,7]. However, Monsanto’s authors dismissed the findings as not ‘biologically meaningful’ [3], as was also the case with another GM corn [29]. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) accepted Monsanto’s interpretation on NK603 maize [30], like in all other cases.

Our study is the first and to date the only attempt to follow up Monsanto’s investigation and to determine whether the differences found in the NK603 GM maize-fed rats, especially with respect to liver and kidney function, were not biologically meaningful, as claimed, or whether they developed into serious diseases over an extended period of time.

The Monsanto authors adapted Guideline 408 of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) for their experimental design [3]. Our study design was based on that of the Monsanto investigation in order to make the two experiments comparable, but we extended the period of observation from Monsanto’s 90 days to 2 years. We also used three doses of GMOs (instead of Monsanto’s two) and Roundup to determine treatment dose response, including any possible non-linear as well as linear effects. This allowed us to follow in detail the potential health effects and their possible origins due to the direct or indirect consequences of the genetic modification itself in the NK603 GM maize, or due to the R herbicide formulation used on the GM maize (and not G alone), or both. Because of recent reviews on GM foods indicating no specific risk of cancer [2,16], but indicating signs of hepatorenal dysfunction within 3 months [1,7], we had no reason to adopt a carcinogenesis protocol using 50 rats per group. However, we prolonged to 2 years the biochemical and hematological measurements and measurements of disease status, as allowed, for example, in OECD protocols 453 (combined chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity) and 452 (chronic toxicity). Both OECD 452 and 453 specify 20 rats per sex per group but require only 50% (ten per sex per group, the same number that we used in total) to be analyzed for biochemical and hematological parameters. Thus, these protocols yield data from the same number of rats as our experiment. This remains the highest number of rats regularly measured in a standard GM diet study, as well as for a full formulated pesticide at very low environmentally relevant levels.

We used the Sprague-Dawley strain of rat, as recommended for chronic toxicology tests by the National Toxicology Program in the USA [31], and as used by Monsanto in its 90-day study [3]. This choice is also consistent with the recommendation of the OECD that for a chronic toxicity test, rats of the same strain should be used as in studies on the same substance but of shorter duration [32]. We then also tested for the first time three doses (rather than the two usually employed in 90-day protocols) of the R-tolerant NK603 GM maize alone, the GM maize treated with R, and R alone at very low environmentally relevant doses, starting below the range of levels permitted by regulatory authorities in drinking water and in GM feed.

Overall, our study is the first in-depth life-long toxicology study on the full commercial Roundup formulation and NK603 GM maize, with observations on 34 organs and measurement of 56 parameters analyzed at 11 time points for most organs, and utilizing 3 doses. We report here the major toxicological findings on multiple organ systems. As there was no evidence in the literature on GM food safety evaluation to indicate anything to the contrary, this initial investigation was designed as a full chronic toxicity and not a carcinogenicity study. Thus, we monitored in details chronologically all behavioral and anatomical abnormalities including tumors. A full carcinogenicity study, which usually focuses only on observing incidence and type of cancers (not always all tumors), would be a rational follow-up investigation to a chronic toxicity study in which there is a serious suspicion of carcinogenicity. Such indications had not been previously reported for GM foods.

Our findings show that the differences in multiple organ functional parameters seen from the consumption of NK603 GM maize for 90 days [3,7] escalated over 2 years into severe organ damage in all types of test diets. This included the lowest dose of R administered (0.1 ppb, 50 ng/L G equivalent) of R formulation administered, which is well below permitted MRLs in both the USA (0.7 mg/L) [33] and European Union (100 ng/L) [34]. Surprisingly, there was also a clear trend in increased tumor incidence, especially mammary tumors in female animals, in a number of the treatment groups. Our data highlight the inadequacy of 90-day feeding studies and the need to conduct long-term (2 years) investigations to evaluate the life-long impact of GM food consumption and exposure to complete pesticide formulations.

Results

Biochemical analyses of the maize feed

Standard biochemical compositional analysis revealed no particular differences between the different maize types and diets, the GM and non-GM maize being classified as substantially equivalent, except for transgene DNA quantification. For example, there was no difference in total isoflavones. In addition, we also assayed for other specific compounds, which are not always requested for establishing substantial equivalence. This analysis revealed a consistent and statistically significant (p < 0.01) decrease in certain phenolic acids in treatment diets, namely ferulic and caffeic acids. Ferulic acid was decreased in both GM maize and GM maize + R diets by 16% to 30% in comparison to the control diet (889 ± 107, 735 ± 89, respectively, vs. control 1,057 ± 127 mg/kg) and caffeic acid in the same groups by 21% to 53% (17.5 ± 2.1, 10.3 ± 1.3 vs. control 22.1 ± 2.6 mg/kg).

Anatomopathological observations and liver parameters

All rats were carefully monitored during the experiment for behavior, appearance, palpable tumors, and infections. At least ten organs per animal were weighed and up to 34 analyzed postmortem, at the macroscopic and/or microscopic levels (Table 1). Due to the large quantity of data collected, it cannot all be shown in one report, but we present here the most important findings. There was no rejection by the animals of the diet with or without GM maize, nor any major difference in body weight (data not shown).

Table 1. Protocol used and comparison to existing assessment and to non-mandatory regulatory tests

The most affected organs in males were the liver, hepatodigestive tract, and kidneys (Table 2; Figure 1A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I). Liver abnormalities such as hepatic congestions and macroscopic and microscopic necrotic foci were 2.5 to 5.5 times more frequent in all treatments than in control groups, where only two rats out of ten were affected with one abnormality each. For instance, there were 5 abnormalities in total in the GMO 11% group (2.5 times higher than controls) and 11 in the GMO 22% group (5.5 times greater). In addition, by the end of the experiment, Gamma GT hepatic activity was increased, particularly in the GMO + R groups (up to 5.4 times higher), this probably being reflective of liver dysfunction. Furthermore, cytochrome P450 activity generally increased in the presence of R (either in drinking water or in the GM maize-containing diet) according to the dose and up to 5.7 times greater at the highest dose.

Table 2. Summary of the most frequent anatomical pathologies observed

thumbnailFigure 1. Anatomopathological observations in rats fed GMO treated or not by Roundup and effects of Roundup alone. Macroscopic (A to D) and microscopic (A’ and C’) photographs show male left kidneys and livers (E to I) and female pituitaries (J to M), in accordance to Table 2. The number of each animal and its treatment is specified. Macroscopic pale spots (I) and microscopic necrotic foci in liver (G clear-cell focus, H basophilic focus with atypia), and marked or severe chronic progressive nephropathies, are illustrated. In females, pituitary adenomas (K to M) are shown and compared to control (J, rat number and C for control). Apostrophes after letters indicate organs from the same rat.

Transmission electron microscopic observations of liver samples confirmed changes for all treated groups in relation to glycogen dispersion or appearance in lakes, increase of residual bodies and enlargement of cristae in mitochondria (Figure 2, panels 2 to 4). The GM maize-fed groups either with or without R application showed a higher heterochromatin content and decreased nucleolar dense fibrillar components, implying a reduced level of mRNA and rRNA transcription. In the GMO + R group (at the highest dose), the smooth endoplasmic reticulum was drastically increased and nucleoli decreased in size, becoming more compact. In the R alone treatment groups, similar trends were observed, with a partial resumption of nucleolar activity at the highest dose.

thumbnailFigure 2. Ultrastructure of hepatocytes in male rats from groups presenting the greatest degree of liver pathology. (1) Typical control rat hepatocyte (bar 2 μm except in 4). (2) Effects with Roundup at the lowest dose. Glycogen (G) is dispersed in the cytoplasm. L, lipid droplet; N, nucleus; R, rough endoplasmic reticulum. (3) Details of treatment effects with 22% dietary GMO (bar 1 μm). a, cluster of residual bodies (asterisks); b, mitochondria show many enlarged cristae (arrows). (4) Hepatocytes of animal fed GM maize (GMO) at 22% of total diet. Large lakes of glycogen occur in the cytoplasm. M, mitochondria.

Degenerating kidneys with turgid inflammatory areas demonstrated the increased incidence of marked and severe chronic progressive nephropathies, which were up to two fold higher in the 33% GM maize or lowest dose R treatment groups (Table 2; Figure 1, first line).

Biochemical analyses of blood and urine samples

Biochemical measurements of blood and urine were focused on samples taken at the 15th month time point, as this was the last sampling time when most animals were still alive (in treated groups 90% males, 94% females, and 100% controls). Statistical analysis of results employed OPLS-DA 2-class models built between each treated group per sex and controls. Only models with an explained variance R2(Y) ≥ 80%, and a cross-validated predictive ability Q2(Y) ≥ 60%, were used for selection of the discriminant variables (Figure 3), when their regression coefficients were significant at a 99% confidence level. Thus, in treated females, kidney failures appeared at the biochemical level (82% of the total disrupted parameters). Levels of Na and Cl or urea increased in urine with a concomitant decrease of the same ions in serum, as did the levels of P, K, and Ca. Creatinine and creatinine clearance decreased in urine for all treatment groups in comparison to female controls (Table 3). In GM maize-treated males (with or without R), 87% of discriminant variables were kidney-related, but the disrupted profiles were less obvious because of advanced chronic nephropathies and deaths. In summary, for all treatments and both sexes, 76% of the discriminant variables versus controls were kidney-related.

thumbnailFigure 3. Orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) for biochemical data (females fed 33% GMO versus controls). (A) First, detailed examples of significant discriminant variables distribution between females fed 33% GMO (bold line) and controls (dotted line). On X axis, animals; on Y axis, serum or urine biochemical values for Na, Cl, estradiol, testosterone. (B) Wider view of OPLS-DA regression coefficients for predictive component, with jack-knifed confidence intervals at 99% confidence level, indicating discriminant parameters versus controls at month 15. U, urinary; UEx, excreted in urine during 24 h; APPT, activated partial thromboplastin time; MCV, mean corpuscular volume; PT, prothrombine time; RBC, red blood cells; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; MCHC, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration; A/G, albumin/globulin ratio; WBC, white blood cells; AST, aspartate aminotransferase. Profiles evidence kidney ion leakages and sex hormonal imbalance versus controls.

Table 3. Percentage variation of parameters indicating kidney failures of female animals

Furthermore, in females (Table 3), the androgen/estrogen balance in serum was modified by GM maize and R treatments (at least 95% confidence level, Figure 3). For male animals at the highest R treatment dose, levels of estrogens were more than doubled.

Tumor incidence

Tumors are reported in line with the requirements of OECD chronic toxicity protocols 452 and 453, which require all ‘lesions’ (which by definition include tumors) to be reported. These findings are summarized in Figure 4. The results are presented in the form of real-time cumulative curves (each step corresponds to an additional tumor in the group). Only the growing largest palpable growths (above a diameter of 17.5 mm in females and 20 mm in males) are presented (for example, see Figure 5A,B,C). These were found to be in 95% of cases non-regressive tumors (Figure 5D,E,F,G,H,I,J) and were not infectious nodules. These arose from time to time; then, most often disappeared and were not different from controls after bacterial analyses. The real tumors were recorded independently of their grade, but dependent on their morbidity, since non-cancerous tumors can be more lethal than those of cancerous nature, due to internal hemorrhaging or compression and obstruction of function of vital organs, or toxins or hormone secretions. These tumors progressively increased in size and number, but not proportionally to the treatment dose, over the course of the experiment (Figure 4). As in the case of rates of mortality (Figure 6), this suggests that a threshold in effect was reached at the lower doses. Tumor numbers were rarely equal but almost always more than in controls for all treated groups, often with a two- to threefold increase for both sexes. Tumors began to reach a large size on average 94 days before controls in treated females and up to 600 days earlier in two male groups fed with GM maize (11 and 22% with or without R).

thumbnailFigure 4. Largest non-regressive tumors in rats fed GMO treated or not by Roundup and effects of Roundup alone. Rats were fed with NK603 GM maize (with or without application of Roundup) at three different doses (11%, 22%, and 33% in their diet; thin, medium, and bold lines, respectively) compared to the substantially equivalent closest isogenic non-GM maize (control, dotted line). Roundup was administered in drinking water at three increasing doses, same symbols, environmental (A), MRL in some agricultural GMOs (B), and half of minimal agricultural levels (C), see ‘Methods’). The largest tumors were palpable during the experiment and numbered from 20 mm in diameter for males and 17.5 mm for females. Above this size, 95% of growths were non-regressive tumors. Summary of all tumors are shown in the bar histograms: black, non-regressive large tumors; white, small internal tumors; grey, metastases.

thumbnailFigure 5. Examples of female mammary tumors observed. Mammary tumors are evidenced (A, D, H, representative adenocarcinoma, from the same rat in a GMO group) and in Roundup and GMO + Roundup groups, two representative rats (B, C, E, F, I, J fibroadenomas) are compared to controls. A normal representative rat in controls is not shown, only a minority of them having tumors up to 700 days, in contrast with the majority affected in all treated groups. (G) The histological control.

thumbnailFigure 6. Mortality of rats fed GMO treated or not with Roundup and effects of Roundup alone. The symbols of curves and treatments are explained in the caption of Figure 4. Lifespan during the experiment for the control group is represented by the vertical bar ± SEM (grey area). In bar histograms, the causes of mortality before the grey area are detailed in comparison to the controls (0). In black are the necessary euthanasia because of suffering in accordance with ethical rules (tumors over 25% body weight, more than 25% weight loss, hemorrhagic bleeding, etc.); and in hatched areas, spontaneous mortality.

In female animals, the largest tumors were in total five times more frequent than in males after 2 years, with 93% of these being mammary tumors. Adenomas, fibroadenomas, and carcinomas were deleterious to health due to their very large size (Figure 5A,B,C) rather than the grade of the tumor itself. Large tumor size caused impediments to either breathing or digestion and nutrition because of their thoracic or abdominal location and also resulted in hemorrhaging (Figure 5A,B,C). In addition, one metastatic ovarian cystadenocarcinoma and two skin tumors were identified. Metastases were observed in only two cases; one in a group fed with 11% GM maize and another in the highest dose of R treatment group.

Up to 14 months, no animals in the control groups showed any signs of palpable tumors, whilst 10% to 30% of treated females per group developed tumors, with the exception of one group (33% GMO + R). By the beginning of the 24th month, 50% to 80% of female animals had developed tumors in all treatment groups, with up to three tumors per animal, whereas only 30% of controls were affected. A summary of all mammary tumors at the end of the experiment, independent of size, is presented in Table 2. The same trend was observed in the groups receiving R in their drinking water (Figure 4, R treatment panels). The R treatment groups showed the greatest rates of tumor incidence, with 80% of animals affected (with up to three tumors for one female), in each group. Using a non-parametric multiple comparison analysis, mammary tumor incidence was significantly increased at the lowest dose of R compared to controls (p < 0.05, Kruskal-Wallis test with post hoc Dunn’s test). All females except one (with metastatic ovarian carcinoma) presented in addition mammary hypertrophies and in some cases hyperplasia with atypia (Table 2).

The second most affected organ in females was the pituitary gland, in general around two times more than in controls for most treatments (Table 2; Figure 1J,K,L,M). Again, at this level of examination, adenomas and/or hyperplasias and hypertrophies were noticed. For all R treatment groups, 70% to 80% of animals presented 1.4 to 2.4 times more abnormalities in this organ than controls.

The large palpable tumors in males (in kidney and mostly skin) were by the end of the experimental period on average twice as frequent as in controls, in which only one skin fibroma appeared during the 23rd month. At the end of the experiment, internal non-palpable tumors were added, and their sums were lower in males than in females. They were not significantly different from controls, although slightly increased in females (Figure 4, histogram insets).

Mortality

The rates of mortality in the various control and treatment groups are shown as raw data in Figure 6. Control male animals survived on average 624 ± 21 days, whilst females lived for 701 ± 20 days during the experiment, plus in each case, a 5-week starting age at reception of animals and a 3-week housing stabilization period. After mean survival time had elapsed, any deaths that occurred were considered to be largely due to aging. Before this period, 30% control males (three in total) and 20% females (only two) died spontaneously, while up to 50% males and 70% females died in some groups on diets containing the GM maize (Figure 6, panels GMO, GMO + R). However, the rate of mortality was not proportional to the treatment dose, reaching a threshold at the lowest (11%) or intermediate (22%) amounts of GM maize in the equilibrated diet, with or without the R application on the crop. It is noteworthy that the first two male rats that died in both GM maize-treated groups had to be euthanized due to Wilms’ kidney tumors that had grown by this time to over 25% of body weight. This was approximately a year before the first control animal died. The first female death occurred in the 22% GM maize feeding group and resulted from a mammary fibroadenoma 246 days before the first control female death. The maximum difference in males was five times more deaths occurring by the 17th month in the group consuming 11% GM maize and in females six times greater mortality by the 21st month on the 22% GM maize diet with and without R. In the female cohorts, there were two to three times more deaths in all treated groups compared with controls by the end of the experiment and deaths occurred earlier in general. Females were more sensitive to the presence of R in drinking water than males, as evidenced by a shorter lifespan (Figure 6, panels R). The general causes of death represented in histogram format within each of the panels in Figure 6, are linked mostly to mammary tumors in females and to problems in other organ systems in males.

Additional file 1. Biochemistry M15

Format: XLS Size: 140KB Download file

This file can be viewed with: Microsoft Excel ViewerOpen Data

Additional file 2. List of blood and urine paramaters with sampling and unit detail

Format: PDF Size: 172KB Download file

This file can be viewed with: Adobe Acrobat ReaderOpen Data

Additional file 3. Mortality and tumors raw data

Format: XLSX Size: 122KB Download fileOpen Data

Additional file 4. Rats identification

Format: PDF Size: 90KB Download file

This file can be viewed with: Adobe Acrobat ReaderOpen Data

Additional file 5. Raw data legends

Format: DOCX Size: 14KB Download fileOpen Data

Discussion

This report describes the first long-term (2-year) rodent (rat) feeding study investigating possible toxic effects arising from consumption of an R-tolerant GM maize (NK603) and a complete commercial formulation of R herbicide. The aims of this investigation were essentially twofold. First, to evaluate whether the signs of toxicity, especially with respect to liver and kidney functions, seen after 90 days’ consumption of a diet containing NK603 R-tolerant GM maize [3,7] escalated into serious ill health or dissipated over an extended period of time. Second, to determine if low doses of full commercial R formulation at permitted levels were still toxic, as indicated by our previous in vitro studies [8,9]. The previous toxicity study with NK603 maize employed only this GM crop that had been sprayed with R during cultivation [3]. However, in our study presented here, in addition to extending the treatment period from 90 days to 2 years and in order to better ascertain the source of any ill health observed, we included additional test feeding groups. These consisted of NK603 maize grown without as well as with R application and R alone administered via drinking water. Furthermore, we used three levels of dosing in all cases rather than the two previously used [3], in order to highlight any dose response effects of a given treatment. It is also important to note that our study is the first to conduct blood, urine, and organ analyses from animals treated with the complete agricultural formulation of R and not just G alone, as measured by the manufacturer [35].

Our data show that the signs of liver and kidney toxicity seen at 90 days from the consumption of NK603 GM maize [3,7] do indeed escalate into severe disease over an extended period. Furthermore, similar negative health effects were observed in all treatment groups (NK603 GM maize with or without R application and R alone).

What is also evident from our data is that ill effects were not proportional to the dose of either the NK603 GM maize ± R or R alone. This suggests that the observed disease may result from endocrine disruptive effects, which are known to be non-monotonic. Similar degrees of pathological symptoms occurred from the lowest to the highest doses, suggesting a threshold effect [36]. This corresponds to levels likely to arise from consumption or environmental exposure, such as either 11% GM maize in food, or 50 ng/L G equivalent of R-formulation, a level which can be found in some contaminated drinking tap waters and which falls within authorized limits.

Death in male rats was mostly due to the development of severe hepatorenal insufficiencies, confirming the first signs of toxicity observed in 90-day feeding trials with NK603 GM maize [7]. In females, kidney ion leakage was evident at a biochemical level at month 15, when severe nephropathies were observed in dead male animals at postmortem, at the anatomopathological level. Early signs of toxicity at month 3 in kidney and liver were also observed for 19 edible GM crops containing pesticide residues [1]. It is known that only elderly male rats are sensitive to chronic progressive nephropathies [37]. Therefore, the disturbed kidney functional parameters may have been induced by the reduced levels of phenolic acids in the GM maize feed used in our study, since caffeic and ferulic acids are beneficial to the kidney as they prevent oxidative stress [38,39]. This possibility is consistent with our previous observation that plant extracts containing ferulic and caffeic acids were able to promote detoxification of human embryonic kidney cells after culture in the presence of R [40]. It is thus possible that NK603 GM maize consumption, with its reduced levels of these compounds, may have provoked the early aging of the kidney physiology, similarly to R exposure causing oxidative stress [41]. Disturbances in global patterns of gene expression leading to disease via epigenetic effects cannot be excluded, since it has been demonstrated that numerous pesticides can cause changes in DNA methylation and histone modification, thereby altering chromatin compaction and thus gene expression profiles [42].

Disturbances that we found to occur in the male liver are characteristic of chronic toxicity, confirmed by alterations in biochemical liver and kidney function parameters. The observation that liver function in female animals was less negatively affected may be due to the known protection from oxidative stress conferred by estrogen [43]. Estrogen can induce expression of genes such as superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase via the MAP kinase-NF-kB signaling pathway, thus providing an antioxidant effect [43]. Furthermore, liver enzymes have been clearly demonstrated as sex-specific in their expression patterns, including in a 90-day rat feeding trial of NK603 GM maize [7]. However, in a long-term study, evidence of early liver aging was observed in female mice fed with R-tolerant GM soy [12]. In the present investigation, deeper analysis at an ultrastructural level revealed evidence of impediments in transcription and other defects in cell nuclear structure that were comparable in both sexes and dose-dependent in hepatocytes in all treatments. This is consistent with the well-documented toxic effect of very low dilutions of R on apoptosis, mitochondrial function, and cell membrane degradation, inducing necrosis of hepatocytes, and in other cell lines [8,9,44,45].

The disruptions of at least the estrogen-related pathways and/or enhancement of oxidative stress by all treatments need further confirmation. This can be addressed through the application of transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic methods to analyze the molecular profile of kidneys and livers, as well as the GM NK603 maize [4648]. Other possible causes of observed pathogenic effects may be due to disturbed gene expression resulting from the transgene insertional, general mutagenic, or metabolic effects [49,50] as has been shown for MON810 GM maize [51,52]. A consequent disruption of general metabolism in the GMO cannot be excluded, which could lead, for example, to the production of other potentially active compounds such as miRNAs [53] or leukotoxin diols [54].

The lifespan of the control group of animals corresponded to the mean for the strain of rat used (Harlan Sprague-Dawley), but as is frequently the case with most mammals, including humans [55], males on average died before females, except for some female treatment groups. All treatments in both sexes enhanced large tumor incidence by two- to threefold in comparison to our controls and also the number of mammary tumors in comparison to the Harlan Sprague-Dawley strain [56] and overall around threefold in comparison to the largest study with 1,329 Sprague-Dawley female rats [57]. This indicates that the use of historical data to compare our tumor numbers is not relevant, first, since we studied the difference with concurrent controls chronologically (and not only at the end of the experiment, as is the case in historical data), and second, since the diets of historical reference animals may have been contaminated with several non-monitored compounds including GMOs and pesticides at levels used in our treatments. In our study, the tumors also developed considerably faster than in controls, even though the majority of tumors were observed after 18 months. The first large detectable tumors occurred at 4 and 7 months into the study in males and females, respectively, further underlining the inadequacy of the standard 90-day feeding trials for evaluating GM crop and food toxicity [1]. Future studies employing larger cohorts of animals providing appropriate statistical power are required to confirm or refute the clear trend in increased tumor incidence and mortality rates seen with some of the treatments tested in this study. As already stated, our study was not designed as a carcinogenicity study that would have required according to OECD the use of 50 rats per sex per group. However, we wish to emphasize that the need for more rats to provide sufficient statistical power may be biased by the presence of contaminants in the diets used in gathering historical control data, increasing artificially the background of tumors, which would inappropriately be called in this case ‘spontaneous’ or due to the genetic strain. For instance, toxic, hormonal disrupting or carcinogenic levels of pesticides, PCBs, plasticizers, dioxins, or heavy metals may contaminate the diets or drinking water used for the establishment of ‘spontaneous’ tumors in historical data [5862].

In females, induced euthanasia due to suffering and deaths corresponded mostly to the development of large mammary tumors. This was observed independently of the cancer grade but according to impact on morbidity. These appeared to be related to the various treatments when compared to the control groups. These tumors are generally known to be mostly estrogen-dependent [63]. We observed a strikingly marked induction of mammary tumors in groups administered R alone, even at the very lowest dose (50 ng/L G equivalent dilution in adjuvants). At this concentration in vitro, G alone is known to induce human breast cancer cell growth via estrogen receptors [64]. In addition, R with adjuvants has been shown to disrupt aromatase, which synthesizes estrogen [19], and to interfere with estrogen and androgen receptors in cells [8]. Furthermore, R appears to be a sex endocrine disruptor in vivo in males [10]. Sex steroid levels were also modified in treated rats in our study. These hormone-dependent phenomena are confirmed by enhanced pituitary dysfunction in treated females. An estrogen-modified feedback mechanism may act at this level [65,66]. The similar pathological profiles provoked by the GM maize + R diet may thus be explained at least in part by R residues present in this feed. In this regard, it is noteworthy that the medium dose of the R treatment tested (400 mg/Kg G equivalent) corresponds to acceptable residue levels of this pesticide in some edible GMOs.

Interestingly and perhaps surprisingly, in the groups of animals fed with the NK603 GM maize without R application, similar effects with respect to enhanced tumor incidence and mortality rates were observed. For instance, comparing the 11% GMO-treated female group to the controls, the assumption that the tumors are equally distributed is rejected with a level of significance of 0.54% with the Westlake exceedance test [67]. The classical tests of Kolmogorov-Smirnov (one-sided) and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney reach α values of significance, which are respectively of 1.40% and 2.62%.

A possible explanation for this finding is the production of specific compound(s) in the GM feed that are either directly toxic and/or cause the inhibition of pathways, which in turn generates toxic effects. This is despite the fact that the variety of GM maize used in this study was judged by industry and regulators as being substantially equivalent to the corresponding non-GM closest isogenic line [3,30]. As the total chemical composition of the GM maize has not been measured in detail, the use of substantial equivalence as a concept in risk assessment is insufficient to highlight potential unknown toxins and therefore cannot replace long-term animal feeding trials for GMOs.

A cause of the ill effects resulting from NK603 GM maize alone observed in this study could be the fact that it is engineered to overexpress a modified version of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS-CP4) [3], which confers R tolerance. The modified EPSPS is not inhibited by G, in contrast to the wild-type enzyme in the crop. This enzyme is known to drive the first step of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis in the plant shikimate pathway. In addition, estrogenic isoflavones and their glycosides are also products of this pathway [68]. A limited compositional analysis showed that these biochemical pathways were not disturbed in the GM maize used in our study. However, our analysis did reveal that the levels of caffeic and ferulic acids in the GM diet, which are also secondary metabolites of the plant shikimate pathway, but not always measured in regulatory tests, were significantly reduced. This may lower their protective effects against carcinogenesis and mammalian tumor formation [69,70]. Moreover, these phenolic acids, and in particular ferulic acid, may modulate estrogen receptors or the estrogenic pathway in mammalian cells [71]. This does not exclude the possibility of the action of other unknown metabolites. This explanation also corresponds to the fact that the observed effects of NK603 GM maize and R were not additive but reached a threshold. This implies that both the NK603 maize and R may cause hormonal disturbances in the same biochemical and physiological pathways.

Conclusions

In conclusion, the consumption of NK603 GM maize with or without R application or R alone gave similar pathologies in male and female rats fed over a 2-year period. It was previously known that G consumption in water above authorized limits may provoke hepatic and kidney failure [33]. The results of the study presented here clearly indicate that lower levels of complete agricultural G herbicide formulations, at concentrations well below officially set safety limits, can induce severe hormone-dependent mammary, hepatic, and kidney disturbances. Similarly, disruption of biosynthetic pathways that may result from overexpression of the EPSPS transgene in the GM NK603 maize can give rise to comparable pathologies that may be linked to abnormal or unbalanced phenolic acid metabolites or related compounds. Other mutagenic and metabolic effects of the edible GMO cannot be excluded. This will be the subject of future studies, including analyses of transgene, G and other R residue presence in rat tissues. Reproductive and multigenerational studies will also provide novel insight into these problems. This study represents the first detailed documentation of long-term deleterious effects arising from consumption of a GMO, specifically a R-tolerant maize, and of R, the most widely used herbicide worldwide.

Taken together, the significant biochemical disturbances and physiological failures documented in this work reveal the pathological effects of these GMO and R treatments in both sexes, with different amplitudes. They also show that the conclusion of the Monsanto authors [3] that the initial indications of organ toxicity found in their 90-day experiment were not ‘biologically meaningful’ is not justifiable.

We propose that agricultural edible GMOs and complete pesticide formulations must be evaluated thoroughly in long-term studies to measure their potential toxic effects.

Methods

Ethics

The experimental protocol was conducted in an animal care unit authorized by the French Ministries of Agriculture and Research (Agreement Number A35-288-1). Animal experiments were performed according to ethical guidelines of animal experimentations (CEE 86/609 regulation), including the necessary observations of all tumors, in line with the requirements for a long-term toxicological study [32], up to a size where euthanasia on ethical grounds was necessary.

Concerning the cultivation of the maize used in this study, no specific permits were required. This is because the maize was grown (MON-00603-6 commonly named NK603) in Canada, where it is authorized for unconfined release into the environment and for use as a livestock feed by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (Decision Document 2002-35). We confirm that the cultivation did not involve endangered or protected species. The GM maize was authorized for import and consumption into the European Union (CE 258/97 regulation).

Plants, diets, and chemicals

The varieties of maize used in this study were the DKC 2678 R-tolerant NK603 (Monsanto Corp., USA), and its nearest isogenic non-transgenic control DKC 2675. These two types of maize were grown under similar normal conditions, in the same location, spaced at sufficient distance to avoid cross-contamination. The genetic nature, as well as the purity of the GM seeds and harvested material, was confirmed by qPCR analysis of DNA samples. One field of NK603 was treated with R at 3 L ha−1 (WeatherMAX, 540 g/L of G, EPA Reg. 524-537), and another field of NK603 was not treated with R. Corn cobs were harvested when the moisture content was less than 30% and were dried at a temperature below 30°C. From these three cultivations of maize, laboratory rat chow was made based on the standard diet A04 (Safe, France). The dry rat feed was made to contain 11%, 22%, or 33% of GM maize, cultivated either with or without R, or 33% of the non-transgenic control line. The concentrations of the transgene were confirmed in the three doses of each diet by qPCR. All feed formulations consisted of balanced diets, chemically measured as substantially equivalent except for the transgene, with no contaminating pesticides over standard limits. All secondary metabolites cannot be known and measured in the composition. However, we measured isoflavones and phenolic acids including ferulic acid by standard HPLC-UV. All reagents used were of analytical grade. The herbicide diluted in the drinking water was the commercial formulation of R (GT Plus, 450 g/L of G, approval 2020448, Monsanto, Belgium). Herbicide levels were assessed by G measurements in the different dilutions by mass spectrometry.

Animals and treatments

Virgin albino Sprague-Dawley rats at 5 weeks of age were obtained from Harlan (Gannat, France). All animals were kept in polycarbonate cages (820 cm2, Genestil, France) with two animals of the same sex per cage. The litter (Toplit classic, Safe, France) was replaced twice weekly. The animals were maintained at 22 ± 3°C under controlled humidity (45% to 65%) and air purity with a 12 h-light/dark cycle, with free access to food and water. The location of each cage within the experimental room was regularly changed. This 2-year life-long experiment was conducted in a Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) accredited laboratory according to OECD guidelines. After 20 days of acclimatization, 100 male and 100 female animals were randomly assigned on a weight basis into ten equivalent groups. For each sex, one control group had access to plain water and standard diet from the closest isogenic non-transgenic maize control; six groups were fed with 11%, 22%, and 33% of GM NK603 maize either treated or not treated with R. The final three groups were fed with the control diet and had access to water supplemented with respectively 1.1 × 10−8% of R (0.1 ppb or 50 ng/L of G, the contaminating level of some regular tap waters), 0.09% of R (400 mg/kg G, US MRL of 400 ppm G in some GM feed), and 0.5% of R (2.25 g/L G, half of the minimal agricultural working dilution). This was changed weekly. Twice-weekly monitoring allowed careful observation and palpation of animals, recording of clinical signs, measurement of any tumors, food and water consumption, and individual body weights.

Anatomopathology

Animals were sacrificed during the course of the study only if necessary because of suffering according to ethical rules (such as 25% body weight loss, tumors over 25% body weight, hemorrhagic bleeding, or prostration) and at the end of the study by exsanguination under isoflurane anesthesia. In each case, detailed observations and anatomopathology was performed and the following organs were collected: brain, colon, heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, ovaries, spleen, testes, adrenals, epididymis, prostate, thymus, uterus, aorta, bladder, bone, duodenum, esophagus, eyes, ileum, jejunum, lymph nodes, lymphoreticular system, mammary glands, pancreas, parathyroid glands, Peyer’s patches, pituitary, salivary glands, sciatic nerve, skin, spinal cord, stomach, thyroid, and trachea. The first 14 organs (at least ten per animal depending on the sex, Table 1) were weighted, plus any tumors that arose. The first nine were divided into two parts and one half was immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen/carbonic ice. The remaining parts including other organs were rinsed in PBS and stored in 4% formalin before anatomopathological study. These samples were used for further paraffin-embedding, slides, and HES histological staining. For transmission electron microscopy, the kidneys, livers, and tumors were cut into 1 mm3 fragments. Samples were fixed in pre-chilled 2% paraformaldehyde/2.5% glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M PBS pH 7.4 at 4°C for 3 h and processed as previously described [13].

Biochemical analyses

Blood samples were collected from the tail vein of each rat under short isoflurane anesthesia before treatment and after 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, and 24 months: 11 measurements were obtained for each animal alive at 2 years. It was first demonstrated that anesthesia did not impact animal health. Two aliquots of plasma and serum were prepared and stored at −80°C. Then, 31 parameters were assessed (Table 1) according to standard methods including hematology and coagulation parameters, albumin, globulin, total protein concentration, creatinine, urea, calcium, sodium, potassium, chloride, inorganic phosphorus, triglycerides, glucose, total cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl-transferase (GT), estradiol, and testosterone. In addition, at months 12 and 24, the C-reactive protein was assayed. Urine samples were collected similarly 11 times, over 24 h in individual metabolic cages, and 16 parameters were quantified including creatinine, phosphorus, potassium, chloride, sodium, calcium, pH, and clearance. Liver samples taken at the end made it possible to perform assays of CYP1A1, 1A2, 3A4, 2C9 activities in S9 fractions, with glutathione S-transferase and gamma-GT.

Statistical analysis

In this study, multivariate analyses were more appropriate than pairwise comparisons between groups because the parameters were very numerous, with samples of ten individuals. Kaplan-Meyer comparisons, for instance, were not used because these are better adapted to epidemiological studies. Differences in the numbers of mammary tumors were studied by a non-parametric multiple comparisons Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by a post hoc Dunn’s test with the GraphPad Prism 5 software.

Biochemical data were treated by multivariate analysis with the SIMCA-P (V12) software (UMETRICS AB Umea, Sweden). The use of chemometrics tools, for example, principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares to latent structures (PLS), and orthogonal PLS (OPLS), are robust methods for modeling, analyzing, and interpreting complex chemical and biological data. OPLS is a recent modification of the PLS method. PLS is a regression method used in order to find the relationship between two data tables referred to as X and Y. PLS regression [72] analysis consists in calculating by means of successive iterations, linear combinations of the measured X-variables (predictor variables). These linear combinations of X-variables give PLS components (score vectors t). A PLS component can be thought of as a new variable – a latent variable – reflecting the information in the original X-variables that is of relevance for modeling and predicting the response Y-variable by means of the maximization of the square of covariance (Max cov2(X,Y)). The number of components is determined by cross validation. SIMCA software uses the nonlinear iterative partial least squares algorithm (NIPALS) for the PLS regression. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was used in this study [73,74].

The purpose of discriminant analysis is to find a model that separates groups of observations on the basis of their X variables. The X matrix consists of the biochemical data. The Y matrix contains dummy variables which describe the group membership of each observation. Binary variables are used in order to encode a group identity. Discriminant analysis finds a discriminant plan in which the projected observations are well separated according to each group. The objective of OPLS is to divide the systematic variation in the X-block into two model parts, one linearly related to Y (in the case of a discriminant analysis, the group membership), and the other one unrelated (orthogonal) to Y. Components related to Y are called predictive, and those unrelated to Y are called orthogonal. This partitioning of the X data results in improved model transparency and interpretability [75]. Prior to analysis, variables were mean-centered and unit variance scaled.

Competing interests

The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests, and that, in contrast with regulatory assessments for GMOs and pesticides, they are independent from companies developing these products.

Authors’ contributions

GES directed and with JSV designed and coordinated the study. EC, RM, SG, and ND analyzed the data, compiled the literature, and participated in the drafting of the manuscript and final version. MM performed transmission electron microscopy. DH performed OPLS-DA statistical analysis. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Acknowledgements

We thank Michael Antoniou for English assistance, editing, and constructive comments on the manuscript. We gratefully acknowledge the Association CERES, for research on food quality, representing more than 50 companies and private donations, the Foundation ‘Charles Leopold Mayer pour le Progrès de l′Homme’, the French Ministry of Research, and CRIIGEN for their major support.

References

  1. Seralini G-E, Mesnage R, Clair E, Gress S, de Vendomois J, Cellier D (2011) Genetically modified crops safety assessments: present limits and possible improvements. Environ Sci Eur 23:10 BioMed Central Full Text OpenURL
  2. Domingo JL, Gine Bordonaba J (2011) A literature review on the safety assessment of genetically modified plants. Environ Int 37:734-742 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  3. Hammond B, Dudek R, Lemen J, Nemeth M (2004) Results of a 13 week safety assurance study with rats fed grain from glyphosate tolerant corn. Food Chem Toxicol 42:1003-1014 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  4. Hammond B, Lemen J, Dudek R, Ward D, Jiang C, Nemeth M, Burns J (2006) Results of a 90-day safety assurance study with rats fed grain from corn rootworm-protected corn. Food Chem Toxicol 44:147-160 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  5. Hammond BG, Dudek R, Lemen JK, Nemeth MA (2006) Results of a 90-day safety assurance study with rats fed grain from corn borer-protected corn. Food Chem Toxicol 44:1092-1099 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  6. Seralini GE, Cellier D, de Vendomois JS (2007) New analysis of a rat feeding study with a genetically modified maize reveals signs of hepatorenal toxicity. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 52:596-602 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  7. Spiroux de Vendômois J, Roullier F, Cellier D, Seralini GE (2009) A comparison of the effects of three GM corn varieties on mammalian health. Int J Biol Sci 5:706-726 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text | PubMed Central Full Text OpenURL
  8. Gasnier C, Dumont C, Benachour N, Clair E, Chagnon MC, Seralini GE (2009) Glyphosate-based herbicides are toxic and endocrine disruptors in human cell lines. Toxicology 262:184-191 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  9. Benachour N, Seralini GE (2009) Glyphosate formulations induce apoptosis and necrosis in human umbilical, embryonic, and placental cells. Chem Res Toxicol 22:97-105 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  10. Romano MA, Romano RM, Santos LD, Wisniewski P, Campos DA, de Souza PB, Viau P, Bernardi MM, Nunes MT, de Oliveira CA (2012) Glyphosate impairs male offspring reproductive development by disrupting gonadotropin expression. Arch Toxicol 86:663-673 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  11. Krüger M, Schrödl W, Neuhaus J, Shehata A (2013) Field investigations of glyphosate in urine of Danish dairy cows. J Environ Anal Toxicol 3:5 OpenURL
  12. Malatesta M, Boraldi F, Annovi G, Baldelli B, Battistelli S, Biggiogera M, Quaglino D (2008) A long-term study on female mice fed on a genetically modified soybean: effects on liver ageing. Histochem Cell Biol 130:967-977 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  13. Malatesta M, Caporaloni C, Gavaudan S, Rocchi MB, Serafini S, Tiberi C, Gazzanelli G (2002) Ultrastructural morphometrical and immunocytochemical analyses of hepatocyte nuclei from mice fed on genetically modified soybean. Cell Struct Funct 27:173-180 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  14. Malatesta M, Caporaloni C, Rossi L, Battistelli S, Rocchi MB, Tonucci F, Gazzanelli G (2002) Ultrastructural analysis of pancreatic acinar cells from mice fed on genetically modified soybean. J Anat 201:409-415 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text | PubMed Central Full Text OpenURL
  15. Malatesta M, Perdoni F, Santin G, Battistelli S, Muller S, Biggiogera M (2008) Hepatoma tissue culture (HTC) cells as a model for investigating the effects of low concentrations of herbicide on cell structure and function. Toxicol In Vitro 22:1853-1860 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  16. Snell C, Bernheim A, Berge JB, Kuntz M, Pascal G, Paris A, Ricroch AE (2012) Assessment of the health impact of GM plant diets in long-term and multigenerational animal feeding trials: a literature review. Food Chem Toxicol 50:1134-1148 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  17. Williams GM, Kroes R, Munro IC (2000) Safety evaluation and risk assessment of the herbicide Roundup and its active ingredient, glyphosate, for humans. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 31:117-165 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  18. Cox C (2004) Herbicide factsheet – glyphosate. J Pesticide Reform 24:10-15 OpenURL
  19. Richard S, Moslemi S, Sipahutar H, Benachour N, Seralini GE (2005) Differential effects of glyphosate and roundup on human placental cells and aromatase. Environ Health Perspect 113:716-720 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text | PubMed Central Full Text OpenURL
  20. Mesnage R, Bernay B, Seralini GE (2013) Ethoxylated adjuvants of glyphosate-based herbicides are active principles of human cell toxicity. Toxicology 313:122-128 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  21. Adam A, Marzuki A, Abdul Rahman H, Abdul Aziz M (1997) The oral and intratracheal toxicities of ROUNDUP and its components to rats. Vet Hum Toxicol 39:147-151 PubMed Abstract OpenURL
  22. Mesnage R, Defarge N, Spiroux De Vendômois J, Séralini GE (2014) Major pesticides are more toxic to human cells than their declared active principles. Biomed Res Int Vol 2014:Article ID 179691 Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  23. Jobling S, Burn RW, Thorpe K, Williams R, Tyler C (2009) Statistical modeling suggests that antiandrogens in effluents from wastewater treatment works contribute to widespread sexual disruption in fish living in English rivers. Environ Health Perspect 117:797-802 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text | PubMed Central Full Text OpenURL
  24. Krogh KA, Vejrup KV, Mogensen BB, Halling-Sørensen B (2002) Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method to determine alcohol ethoxylates and alkylamine ethoxylates in soil interstitial water, ground water and surface water samples. J Chromatogr A 957:45-57 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  25. Giesy J, Dobson S, Solomon K (2000) Ecotoxicological risk assessment for Roundup® herbicide. In: Ware G (ed) In Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Springer, New York. pp 35-120Reviews of Environmental Contamination and ToxicologyOpenURL
  26. Cox C, Surgan M (2006) Unidentified inert ingredients in pesticides: implications for human and environmental health. Environ Health Perspect 114:1803-1806 PubMed Abstract | PubMed Central Full Text OpenURL
  27. Mesnage R, Clair E, Séralini GE (2010) Roundup in genetically modified plants: regulation and toxicity in mammals. Theorie in der Ökologie 16:31-33 OpenURL
  28. Monosson E (2005) Chemical mixtures: considering the evolution of toxicology and chemical assessment. Environ Health Perspect 113:383-390 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text | PubMed Central Full Text OpenURL
  29. Doull J, Gaylor D, Greim HA, Lovell DP, Lynch B, Munro IC (2007) Report of an Expert Panel on the reanalysis by of a 90-day study conducted by Monsanto in support of the safety of a genetically modified corn variety (MON 863). Food Chem Toxicol 45:2073-2085 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  30. (2003) Opinion of the scientific panel on genetically modified organisms on a request from the commission related to the safety of foods and food ingredients derived from herbicide-tolerant genetically modified maize NK603 for which a request for placing on the market was submitted under Article 4 of the Novel Food Regulation (EC) No 258/97 by Monsanto (QUESTION NO EFSA-Q-2003-002). EFSA J 9:1-14 OpenURL
  31. King-Herbert A, Sills R, Bucher J (2010) Commentary: update on animal models for NTP studies. Toxicol Pathol 38:180-181 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  32. (2009) OECD guideline no. 452 for the testing of chemicals: Chronic toxicity studies: Adopted 7 September 2009. OECD Publishing, Paris, France. OpenURL
  33. [http://waterepagov/drink/contaminants/basicinformation/glyphosatecfm] webciteEPA: Basic information about glyphosate in drinking water. 2014, (last access March).
  34. (1998) COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 98/83/EC of 3 November 1998 on the quality of water intended for human consumption. Off J Eur Commun L 330(32):51298 OpenURL
  35. German Federal Agency CPFS: Monograph on glyphosate by the German federal agency for consumer protection and food safety.Annex B-5: Toxicol Metabol 1998.
  36. Vandenberg LN, Colborn T, Hayes TB, Heindel JJ, Jacobs DR Jr, Lee DH, Shioda T, Soto AM, Vom Saal FS, Welshons WV, Zoeller RT, Myers JP (2012) Hormones and endocrine-disrupting chemicals: low-dose effects and nonmonotonic dose responses. Endocr Rev 33:378-455 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text | PubMed Central Full Text OpenURL
  37. Hard GC, Khan KN (2004) A contemporary overview of chronic progressive nephropathy in the laboratory rat, and its significance for human risk assessment. Toxicol Pathol 32:171-180 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  38. Srinivasan M, Rukkumani R, Ram Sudheer A, Menon VP (2005) Ferulic acid, a natural protector against carbon tetrachloride-induced toxicity. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 19:491-496 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  39. Sultana S (2011) Attenuation of oxidative stress, inflammation and early markers of tumor promotion by caffeic acid in Fe-NTA exposed kidneys of Wistar rats. Mol Cell Biochem 357:115-124 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  40. Gasnier C, Laurant C, Decroix-Laporte C, Mesnage R, Clair E, Travert C, Seralini GE (2011) Defined plant extracts can protect human cells against combined xenobiotic effects. J Occup Med Toxicol 6:3 PubMed Abstract | BioMed Central Full Text | PubMed Central Full Text OpenURL
  41. El-Shenawy NS (2009) Oxidative stress responses of rats exposed to Roundup and its active ingredient glyphosate. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 28:379-385 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  42. Collotta M, Bertazzi PA, Bollati V (2013) Epigenetics and pesticides. Toxicology 307:35-41 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  43. Vina J, Borras C, Gambini J, Sastre J, Pallardo FV (2005) Why females live longer than males? Importance of the upregulation of longevity-associated genes by oestrogenic compounds. FEBS Lett 579:2541-2545 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  44. Benachour N, Sipahutar H, Moslemi S, Gasnier C, Travert C, Seralini GE (2007) Time- and dose-dependent effects of roundup on human embryonic and placental cells. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 53:126-133 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  45. Peixoto F (2005) Comparative effects of the Roundup and glyphosate on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Chemosphere 61:1115-1122 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  46. Jiao Z, Si XX, Li GK, Zhang ZM, Xu XP (2010) Unintended compositional changes in transgenic rice seeds ( Oryza sativa L.) studied by spectral and chromatographic analysis coupled with chemometrics methods. J Agric Food Chem 58:1746-1754 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  47. Zhou J, Ma C, Xu H, Yuan K, Lu X, Zhu Z, Wu Y, Xu G (2009) Metabolic profiling of transgenic rice with cryIAc and sck genes: an evaluation of unintended effects at metabolic level by using GC-FID and GC-MS. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 877:725-732 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  48. Zolla L, Rinalducci S, Antonioli P, Righetti PG (2008) Proteomics as a complementary tool for identifying unintended side effects occurring in transgenic maize seeds as a result of genetic modifications. J Proteome Res 7:1850-1861 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  49. Latham JR, Wilson AK, Steinbrecher RA (2006) The mutational consequences of plant transformation. J Biomed Biotechnol 2006:25376 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text | PubMed Central Full Text OpenURL
  50. Wilson AK, Latham JR, Steinbrecher RA (2006) Transformation-induced mutations in transgenic plants: analysis and biosafety implications. Biotechnol Genet Eng Rev 23:209-237 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  51. Rosati A, Bogani P, Santarlasci A, Buiatti M (2008) Characterisation of 3′ transgene insertion site and derived mRNAs in MON810 YieldGard maize. Plant Mol Biol 67:271-281 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  52. Abdo E, Barbary O, Shaltout O (2014) Feeding study with Bt corn (MON810: ajeeb YG) on rats: biochemical analysis and liver histopathology. Food Nutri Sci 5:185-195 Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  53. Zhang L, Hou D, Chen X, Li D, Zhu L, Zhang Y, Li J, Bian Z, Liang X, Cai X, Yin Y, Wang C, Zhang T, Zhu D, Zhang D, Xu J, Chen Q, Ba Y, Liu J, Wang Q, Chen J, Wang J, Wang M, Zhang Q, Zhang J, Zen K, Zhang CY (2012) Exogenous plant MIR168a specifically targets mammalian LDLRAP1: evidence of cross-kingdom regulation by microRNA. Cell Res 22:107-126 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text | PubMed Central Full Text OpenURL
  54. Markaverich BM, Crowley JR, Alejandro MA, Shoulars K, Casajuna N, Mani S, Reyna A, Sharp J (2005) Leukotoxin diols from ground corncob bedding disrupt estrous cyclicity in rats and stimulate MCF-7 breast cancer cell proliferation. Environ Health Perspect 113:1698-1704 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text | PubMed Central Full Text OpenURL
  55. (2012) World health statistics. WHO press, Geneva, Switzerland. OpenURL
  56. Brix AE, Nyska A, Haseman JK, Sells DM, Jokinen MP, Walker NJ (2005) Incidences of selected lesions in control female Harlan Sprague–Dawley rats from two-year studies performed by the National Toxicology Program. Toxicol Pathol 33:477-483 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  57. Chandra M, Riley MG, Johnson DE (1992) Spontaneous neoplasms in aged Sprague–Dawley rats. Arch Toxicol 66:496-502 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  58. Hayes TB (2004) There is no denying this: defusing the confusion about atrazine. Biosciences 54:1139-1149 Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  59. Desaulniers D, Leingartner K, Russo J, Perkins G, Chittim BG, Archer MC, Wade M, Yang J (2001) Modulatory effects of neonatal exposure to TCDD, or a mixture of PCBs, p, p’-DDT, and p-p’-DDE, on methylnitrosourea-induced mammary tumor development in the rat. Environ Health Perspect 109:739-747 OpenURL
  60. Schecter AJ, Olson J, Papke O (1996) Exposure of laboratory animals to polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans from commercial rodent chow. Chemosphere 32:501-508 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  61. Kozul CD, Nomikos AP, Hampton TH, Warnke LA, Gosse JA, Davey JC, Thorpe JE, Jackson BP, Ihnat MA, Hamilton JW (2008) Laboratory diet profoundly alters gene expression and confounds genomic analysis in mouse liver and lung. Chem Biol Interact 173:129-140 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  62. Howdeshell KL, Peterman PH, Judy BM, Taylor JA, Orazio CE, Ruhlen RL, Vom Saal FS, Welshons WV (2003) Bisphenol A is released from used polycarbonate animal cages into water at room temperature. Environ Health Perspect 111:1180-1187 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text | PubMed Central Full Text OpenURL
  63. Harvell DM, Strecker TE, Tochacek M, Xie B, Pennington KL, McComb RD, Roy SK, Shull JD (2000) Rat strain-specific actions of 17beta-estradiol in the mammary gland: correlation between estrogen-induced lobuloalveolar hyperplasia and susceptibility to estrogen-induced mammary cancers. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:2779-2784 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text | PubMed Central Full Text OpenURL
  64. Thongprakaisang S, Thiantanawat A, Rangkadilok N, Suriyo T, Satayavivad J (2013) Glyphosate induces human breast cancer cells growth via estrogen receptors. Food Chem Toxicol 59C:129-136 Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  65. Popovics P, Rekasi Z, Stewart AJ, Kovacs M (2011) Regulation of pituitary inhibin/activin subunits and follistatin gene expression by GnRH in female rats. J Endocrinol 210:71-79 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  66. Walf AA, Frye CA (2010) Raloxifene and/or estradiol decrease anxiety-like and depressive-like behavior, whereas only estradiol increases carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis and uterine proliferation among ovariectomized rats. Behav Pharmacol 21:231-240 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text | PubMed Central Full Text OpenURL
  67. Deheuvels P (2013) On testing stochastic dominance by exceedance, precedence and other distribution-free tests, with applications. Chapter 10 in Statistical Models and Methods for Reliability and Survival Analysis John Wiley & Sons. OpenURL
  68. Duke SO, Rimando AM, Pace PF, Reddy KN, Smeda RJ (2003) Isoflavone, glyphosate, and aminomethylphosphonic acid levels in seeds of glyphosate-treated, glyphosate-resistant soybean. J Agric Food Chem 51:340-344 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  69. Kuenzig W, Chau J, Norkus E, Holowaschenko H, Newmark H, Mergens W, Conney AH (1984) Caffeic and ferulic acid as blockers of nitrosamine formation. Carcinogenesis 5:309-313 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  70. Baskaran N, Manoharan S, Balakrishnan S, Pugalendhi P (2010) Chemopreventive potential of ferulic acid in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mammary carcinogenesis in Sprague–Dawley rats. Eur J Pharmacol 637:22-29 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  71. Chang CJ, Chiu JH, Tseng LM, Chang CH, Chien TM, Wu CW, Lui WY (2006) Modulation of HER2 expression by ferulic acid on human breast cancer MCF7 cells. Eur J Clin Invest 36:588-596 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  72. Eriksson L, Johansson E, Kettaneh-Wold N, Wold S (2006) Multi and Megavariate Data Analysis Part I – Principles and Applications. Umetrics AB, Umea, Sweden. OpenURL
  73. Weljie AM, Bondareva A, Zang P, Jirik FR (2011) (1)H NMR metabolomics identification of markers of hypoxia-induced metabolic shifts in a breast cancer model system. J Biomol NMR 49:185-193 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  74. Wiklund S, Johansson E, Sjostrom L, Mellerowicz EJ, Edlund U, Shockcor JP, Gottfries J, Moritz T, Trygg J (2008) Visualization of GC/TOF-MS-based metabolomics data for identification of biochemically interesting compounds using OPLS class models. Anal Chem 80:115-122 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  75. Eriksson L, Johansson E, Kettaneh-Wold N, Trygg J, Wikström C, Wold S (2006) Multi- and Megavariate Data Analysis Part II. Advanced Applications and Method Extensions. Umetrics, Umea, Sweden. OpenURL
Advertisements

  photo FamilySurvivalProtocolColliseumBannergrayscale900x338_zpsb17c85d0.jpg      Health and Wellness Report Banner photo FSPLogoBannerHealthandWellness831x338Blogger_zps68b43460.jpg

…………………………………………………………………………………..

Organic Consumers Association

Campaigning for health, justice, sustainability, peace, and democracy

Monsanto’s Roundup: The Whole Toxic Enchilada

November 19, 2015

Monsanto’s Roundup: The Whole Toxic Enchilada

Last week, while we waited for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to announce whether or not the agency will give Monsanto’s Roundup a free pass by green lighting the use of glyphosate for another 15 years, the EPA’s counterpart in the EU made its own big announcement.

Glyphosate is “unlikely to cause cancer” said the authors of the new report by the European Union Food Safety Authority (EFSA).

That headline, music to Monsanto’s ears, seemed to fly in the face of the findings published earlier this year by the World Health Organization (WHO). After extensive review of the evidence, all 17 of WHO’s leading cancer experts said glyphosate is a “probable human carcinogen?”

Sustainable Pulse (SP), publisher of global news on GMOs and other food-related issues, quickly reported the glaring omission made by the majority of news sources reporting on EFSA’s findings.

According to SP, what EFSA really concluded is this: Glyphosate by itself doesn’t cause cancer. But products like Monsanto’s Roundup, which contain glyphosate and other additives and chemicals that are essential to making the herbicide work? That’s another, or in this case, the rest of the story.

 

Read More Here

Health and Wellness Report Banner photo FSPLogoBannerHealthandWellness831x338Blogger_zps68b43460.jpg

Global Community Report Banner photo FSPLogoGlobalCommunityFulloldworldmapbckgrnd_zps43d3059c.jpg

………………………………………………………………………………..

NaturalNews's profile photo
NaturalNews
soy

(NaturalNews) Pregnant goats fed a diet of genetically modified (GM) soybeans produced small, slow-growing offspring compared with goats fed a diet of non-GM soybeans, according to a study conducted by Italian researchers and published in the journal Small Ruminant Research.

The soybeans used in the study were “Roundup Ready,” engineered for resistance to Monsanto’s global bestselling herbicide Roundup (glyphosate). This is the GM soybean variety most widely grown around the world.

Further analysis revealed that the milk produced by the goats fed GM soy was less nutritious and contained lower levels of a key growth-promoting class of antibodies.

Milk from GMO-fed goats is deficient

Sixty days before kidding, the researchers assigned pregnant Cilentana goats to be fed a diet containing either Monsanto’s Roundup Ready soybeans at one of two different concentrations or the same concentrations of non-GM soybeans. After birth, the kids were fed only their mothers’ milk for 60 more days. The growth of the kids was assessed at 30 and 60 days after birth.

The researchers found that kids of mothers fed GM soy were an average of 20 percent shorter and weighed 20 percent less than kids from the control groups.

Analysis of the mothers’ colostrum (the type of milk produced for the first period following birth) revealed surprising findings. The milk from the mothers fed GM soy was significantly lower in quality, with lower levels of both fat and protein. For example, the milk from the control goats was 18 percent protein, while the milk from the GMO-fed goats was only 6 percent protein. These differences disappeared after several weeks. Perhaps even more significantly, the antibody composition was significantly different between the two groups. Milk from mothers fed GM soy had significantly lower levels of IgG antibodies, which promote growth and development of the immune system.

“This was a carefully conducted study,” said Judy Carman of the Institute of Health and Environmental Research, Australia, who was not involved in the research.

“The differences in the composition of the colostrum between the mothers fed the GE soy and the non-GE soy were particularly striking. The colostrum from the GE-fed mothers contained only 2/3 of the fat, 1/3 of the protein and close to half of the IgG of the mothers fed the non-GM soy.”

The researchers also detected transgenic (modified) DNA in the colostrum of 10 of the 16 GMO-fed goats, and in none of the colostrum of the control goats. This confirms prior findings that transgenic DNA from the diet can pass into the milk of ruminant mammals.

Another reason to avoid GM crops and Roundup

Because there was no significant difference in size between kids from the two groups at birth, the researchers believe that the differences observed in the mothers’ milk likely account for the growth differences in the kids. There might also have been other changes in nutrient content of the milk that the researchers did not test for.

Significantly, prior studies have shown that IgG antibodies also play a role in nutrient absorption by promoting newborn gut development.

“It is already known that Roundup Ready soybeans have various defects including a Manganese deficiency,” said Allison Wilson of The Bioscience Resource Project, who was not involved in the study. “Yet regulators and GMO developers have continuously dismissed credible reports of GMO crops causing apparent harm to animals, from many different research groups.”

Roundup Ready crops are also known to be coated with higher average levels of glyphosate residue than non-GM crops. Glyphosate, in turn, has been linked to various toxic effects, including on the reproductive system and on growth and development, in addition to causing cancer.

Sources for this article include:

IndependentScienceNews.org

NaturalNews.com

 

 

About NaturalNews

The NaturalNews Network is a non-profit collection of public education websites covering topics that empower individuals to make positive changes in their health, environmental sensitivity, consumer choices and informed skepticism. The NaturalNews Network is owned and operated by Truth Publishing International, Ltd., a Taiwan corporation. It is not recognized as a 501(c)3 non-profit in the United States, but it operates without a profit incentive, and its key writer, Mike Adams, receives absolutely no payment for his time, articles or books other than reimbursement for items purchased in order to conduct product reviews.

The vast majority of our content is freely given away at no charge. We offer thousands of articles and dozens of downloadable reports and guides (like the Honest Food Guide) that are designed to educate and empower individuals, families and communities so that they may experience improved health, awareness and life fulfillment.

Learn More About Natural News Here

Health and Wellness Report Banner photo FSPLogoBannerHealthandWellness831x338Blogger_zps68b43460.jpg

……………………………………………………………………………….

NaturalNews's profile photo
NaturalNews
Monsanto

 

(NaturalNews) The downfall of the Monsanto chemical empire could go down in history as having had its official launch in 2015, the year that its flagship herbicide Roundup was found by the World Health Organization (WHO) to be a probable cause of cancer in humans. 2015 is also the year that it was revealed that Monsanto has been hiding the dirty details of this deadly chemical formula from regulatory authorities for nearly four decades.

An independent research scientist by the name of Anthony Samsel procured some 15,000 pages worth of documents from Monsanto covering the full gamut of research on Roundup, the most widely used herbicide in the world, and the information contained in those pages isn’t pretty. In essence, Monsanto has known full well for nearly 40 years that Roundup and glyphosate are linked to organ damage and cancer, and yet this information was withheld from public purview as “proprietary trade secrets.”

As a member of the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS), Samsel has spent much of his career life studying the toxicological effects and bioactivity of Roundup. Based on a cohort of scientific data, he has come to the conclusion that Monsanto purposely failed to submit to regulators evidence showing that glyphosate isn’t as safe or biodegradable as the company claims.

“Monsanto misrepresented the data,” Samsel told listeners during a recent broadcast on the Progressive Radio Network (PRN) that aired on September 4. Monsanto “deliberately covered up data to bring the product [glyphosate] to market,” he added.

For more alternative news like this, don’t miss our exclusive news aggregation service at AlternativeNews.com.

Monsanto corrupted scientific process to push deadly poisons on agriculture

What did this critical data show? According to Samsel, Monsanto intentionally corrupted animal studies by using animals that were already sick with cancer and organ failures as controls. Based on the metrics used in these studies, this made those animals exposed to glyphosate appear no more afflicted than the control animals because all of the animals ended up getting sick.

It’s the same thing vaccine manufacturers do to make toxic vaccines appear “safe and effective”: they give “controls” a different kind of vaccine than the one being tested so that all the test subjects are injected with some kind of vaccine. Then, when rates of encephalitis, autism, and other conditions appear generally equal among the test group and the controls, Monsanto is able to make the false claim that no additional adverse effects were observed.

“In order to minimize and cancel out its adverse findings, Samsel explained that Monsanto had relied upon earlier historical animal control data, toxicological research with lab animals afflicted with cancer and organ failures, and completely unrelated to glyphosate,” explains an article by PRN about the scandal.

The PRN report adds that Monsanto routinely includes what it says are “extraneous studies” to hide or cancel out negative outcomes in other studies and make a particular chemical or GMO product appear safe when it actually isn’t. This criminal tactic has allowed Monsanto and other chemical giants to spread millions of tons of deadly chemicals around the world without penalty when such products never should have gained regulatory approval in the first place.

“In effect, glyphosate received licensure based upon a platform of junk tobacco science,” the report explains. “By ignoring cause and effect relationships behind the onset of multiple cancer and other life-threatening diseases throughout many of its research trials, Monsanto engaged in a radical scientific denialism that has since raked in tens of billions of dollars.”

Sources for this article include:

PRN.fm

NaturalNews.com

 

………………………………………………………………………………..

About NaturalNews

The NaturalNews Network is a non-profit collection of public education websites covering topics that empower individuals to make positive changes in their health, environmental sensitivity, consumer choices and informed skepticism. The NaturalNews Network is owned and operated by Truth Publishing International, Ltd., a Taiwan corporation. It is not recognized as a 501(c)3 non-profit in the United States, but it operates without a profit incentive, and its key writer, Mike Adams, receives absolutely no payment for his time, articles or books other than reimbursement for items purchased in order to conduct product reviews.

The vast majority of our content is freely given away at no charge. We offer thousands of articles and dozens of downloadable reports and guides (like the Honest Food Guide) that are designed to educate and empower individuals, families and communities so that they may experience improved health, awareness and life fulfillment.

Learn More About Natural News Here

 photo FamilySurvivalProtocolColliseumBannergrayscale900x338_zpsb17c85d0.jpg

Health and Wellness Report Banner photo FSPLogoBannerHealthandWellness831x338Blogger_zps68b43460.jpg

……………………………………………………………………………..

© Charles Platiau
Two US agricultural workers have simultaneously sued Monsanto, claiming that the company’s weed-killer herbicide caused their cancers. They have also accused the bio-tech giant of pressuring regulators to downplay the risks from its Roundup herbicide.

In his lawsuit against Monsanto, 58-year-old former farm worker Enrique Rubio said he believes that the bone cancer he was diagnosed with back in 1995 was a result of his work with Monsanto’s weed-killer.

Working in California, Texas and Oregon over several years, Rubio’s duties included spraying fields of cucumbers, onions and other vegetable crops with pesticides and Roundup, one of Monsanto’s widely used herbicides.

Another plaintiff, 64-year-old Judi Fitzgerald, joined Rubio in his legal battle against Monsanto. Diagnosed with leukemia in 2012, Fitzgerald had to use Roundup in the 1990s when she worked at a horticultural products company.

 

View image on Twitter

Cattle leukemia virus found in milk linked to breast cancer – study http://on.rt.com/6rqz 

 

Read More Here

 Health and Wellness Report Banner photo FSPLogoBannerHealthandWellness831x338Blogger_zps68b43460.jpg
Global Community Report Banner photo FSPLogoGlobalCommunityFulloldworldmapbckgrnd_zps43d3059c.jpg…………………………………………………………………………….
grass-76069_640 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

As we have covered extensively in recent months, Monsanto’s herbicide Glyphosate, the primary ingredient in their top-selling product “RoundUp” has been proven to cause cancer. Now, according to new reports, the chemical doesn’t even work and is creating a new resistance in weeds that make them more resilient and more difficult to get rid of.

Nebraska farmer Mike Pietzyk recently discussed how the weeds are becoming resistant to RoundUp in a recent interview with Chemicals And Engineers News.

“The days of going out and spraying RoundUp twice a year—those are long gone,” he said, adding that he was forced to use a cocktail of different chemicals, some of which are even more dangerous than RoundUp. Pietzyk and other farmers are now seeking new solutions to avoid the harsh pesticides used in conventional farming.

“People in urban areas and towns need to understand—we live here, we drink the water under the ground out here,” he says. “We want to be good stewards of what we’ve been entrusted with,” he said.

According to U.S. weed scientist Dallas Peterson, one type of weed, in particular, called Palmer amaranth, has become especially resistant to pesticides and is overgrowing farms across the country.

Complaints of herbicide-resistant weeds have become so common that the House Agriculture Committee has scheduled a meeting on December 4th to specifically address the situation.

Roundup, formulated to be used on GMO or “Roundup Ready” crops engineered to be resistant to it, is the most widely used herbicide in the world. It was originally introduced in the 1970s to control weeds and then took off when the planting of GMO crops skyrocketed in the past 15 years.

According to a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), glyphosate use in the U.S. increased from about 20 million pounds in 1992 to 110 million pounds in 2002 to more than 280 million pounds in 2012.

In a statement released earlier this year, the World Health Organization’s International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) announced that glyphosate, the main ingredient in RoundUp, is “probably carcinogenic.”


John Vibes writes for True Activist and is an author, researcher and investigative journalist who takes a special interest in the counter culture and the drug war.

 

 photo FamilySurvivalProtocolColliseumBannergrayscale900x338_zpsb17c85d0.jpg

Health and Wellness Report Banner photo FSPLogoBannerHealthandWellness831x338Blogger_zps68b43460.jpg

………………………………………………………………………………

contaminated_wheat_grain

Think you can avoid glyphosate by buying organic? Think again. A new investigation by Tropical Traditions reveals that many products in the organic grain market in the U.S. contain glyphosate residue at levels almost the same as conventional grains.

Brian Shilhavy
Health Impact News Editor

With over 80% of the U.S. food supply now reportedly contaminated with the herbicide glyphosate, many people are turning to USDA certified organic products to avoid this toxic chemical. Current USDA NOP (National Organic Program) standards do not allow the use of the herbicide glyphosate on organic crops.

However, a new investigation by Tropical Traditions has revealed that the U.S. organic grain market is contaminated with glyphosate.

Tropical Traditions has sold organic grains for years. After reading new research about the issue of “crop desiccation” done by using glyphosate on wheat and other grains just prior to harvest, Tropical Traditions decided to first test some commercial wheat products with wheat grown in Montana, North Dakota, and Canada. They sent the commercial samples to a well-known and respected laboratory to test for glyphosate.

All tested positive for glyphosate residue. The range was from 0.07 mg/kg to 0.09 mg/kg. Keep in mind this is glyphosate found in non-GMO crops. For a GMO crop such as GMO soybeans, which are sprayed heavily with glyphosate, the range is typically between 3.3 and 5.7 mg/kg. (Source.)

Next, Tropical Traditions tested the USDA certified organic grains from suppliers they had been using, sourced mainly from western states such as Montana and Idaho. Sadly, the presence of glyphosate residue was found in organic wheat and other organic grains, including organic barley, oats, spelt, and einkorn. The range was from 0.03 to 0.06 mg/kg, just slightly lower than the conventional grains that were tested.

The only organic grains that tested clean were organic rye and organic millet. There was also one variety of organic wheat from small-scale farmers in Wisconsin that tested clean from glyphosate.

Why Should We be Concerned about Glyphosate?

Glyphosate is in 80% of our food supply in the U.S., and some scientists believe it may well be the most toxic chemical ever approved for commercial use. Glyphosate is now linked to kidney disease, antibiotic resistant bacteria, inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, depression, ADHD, autism, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, ALS, multiple sclerosis, cancer, cachexia, infertility, and developmental malformations. It destroys the microbiome of humans and plants, which is the root cause of many modern diseases.

Read More Here

 

Playing Keep Away From GMOs

SuperMarket News

 

…..

By Dr. Mercola

In a recent article titled “Monsanto GM Soy is Scarier than You Think,” Mother Jones1 went into some of the details surrounding our genetically engineered (GE) food supply.

Soybeans are the second-largest food crop grown in the US, and more than 90 percent of it is genetically engineered. Some have been modified to withstand the herbicide Roundup (i.e. Roundup-Ready soy), while other varieties have been designed to produce its own pesticide, courtesy of the Bt gene (so-called Bt soy).

As noted in the featured article, organic soy production is miniscule, accounting for less than one percent of the total acreage devoted to soy in the US. The rest is conventionally grown non-GE soy.

Even if you don’t buy soy products such as tofu or soy milk, you’re undoubtedly consuming plenty of soy if you’re eating any processed foods and/or meats from animals raised in confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). A large portion of the GE soy grown actually ends up in your meat, as soy is a staple of conventional livestock feed. Much of the rest ends up as vegetable oil.

According to the US Soy Board, soybean oil accounts for more than 60 percent of all the vegetable oil consumed in the US—most of which is used in processed foods and fast food preparation. As noted in the featured article:2

“Given soy’s centrality to our food and agriculture systems, the findings of a new study published in the peer-reviewed journal Food Chemistry3 are worth pondering.

The authors found that Monsanto’s ubiquitous Roundup Ready soybeans… contain more herbicide residues than their non-GMO counterparts. The team also found that the GM beans are nutritionally inferior.”

 

New Research Questions Quality and Safety of GE Soybeans

 

Three varieties of Iowa-grown soybeans were investigated in this study:4

  1. Roundup Ready soybeans
  2. Non-GE, conventional soybeans grown using Roundup herbicide
  3. Organic soybeans, grown without agricultural chemicals

All of the Roundup Ready soybean samples were found to contain residues of glyphosate, which is the active ingredient in Roundup, along with its amino acid metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA).

On average, GE soy contained 11.9 parts per million (ppm) of glyphosate. The highest residue level found was 20.1 ppm. Meanwhile, no residues of either kind were found in the conventional non-GE and organic varieties.

In terms of nutrition, organic soybeans contained slightly higher levels of protein and lower levels of omega-6, compared to both conventionally-grown non-GE and GE soy. Similar results were found in a 2012 nutritional analysis of GE corn, which was found to contain 13 ppm of glyphosate, compared to zero in non-GMO corn.

It may be worth noting that the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) actually raised the allowable levels of glyphosate5, 6 in oilseed crops such as soy, from 20 ppm to 40 ppm just last summer. It also raised the levels of permissible glyphosate contamination in other foods—many of which were raised to 15-25 times previous levels!

 

Why Glyphosate Contamination Matters

 

Nearly one BILLION pounds of Roundup are used each year for conventional crop production around the globe, but genetically engineered (GE) crops see some of the heaviest use. This is especially true for Roundup Ready crops, which are designed to withstand otherwise lethal doses of this chemical.

The issue of glyphosate contamination is well worth considering if you value your health. Recent research suggests glyphosate may in fact be an instrumental driver of many chronic diseases, and in my view, avoiding glyphosate is a major reason for buying organic, in and of itself.

Labeling GMOs could help you select products that are less likely to have heavy contamination, although you’d also avoid many other hazardous chemicals used in conventional farming by opting for products labeled 100% organic.

It’s important to understand that these glyphosate residues CANNOT be washed off, as the chemical is actively integrated into every cell in the plant. Dr. Don Huber, who is one of the most prominent scientific experts in plant toxicology, firmly believes glyphosate is FAR more toxic and dangerous than DDT. A number of other studies have raised serious questions about the safety of glyphosate, including but not limited to the following:

  • Research published in the International Journal of Toxicology7 in January revealed that glyphosate-based formulations like Roundup pose a threat to human health through cytotoxicity and oxidative effects. Such formulations were also found to be lethal to human liver cells
  • A 2012 study8 found that 3 ppm of Roundup in water induced morphological changes in frogs
  • A German study9 on poultry, published in 2013, showed that glyphosate tends to be more harmful to beneficial gut bacteria like Lactobacillus, while pathogenic bacteria like Salmonella entritidi tend to be largely resistant to the chemical. Subsequently, the microbial balance tends to shift toward pathogenic overgrowth when exposed to glyphosate, and can predispose the animal to botulism

Victory! Vermont Passes First Effective GMO-Labeling Bill

 

On April 16, 2014, the Vermont Senate passed the first no-strings-attached GMO labeling bill (H.112) by an overwhelming margin—28-2. The bill sailed through a House/Senate conference committee and was approved by the House of Representatives on April 23.

Governor Shumlin has already indicated he will be signing the bill into law—which will require any genetically engineered food sold in Vermont to be labeled by July 1, 2016.10 Food served in restaurants, alcohol, meat, and dairy products would be exempt from labeling however. Foods containing GMO ingredients would also not be allowed to be labeled “natural.”

“I am proud of Vermont for being the first state in the nation to ensure that Vermonters will know what is in their food,” Governor Shumlin said in a statement. “The Legislature has spoken loud and clear through its passage of this bill. I wholeheartedly agree with them and look forward to signing this bill into law.”

This is truly an historical moment that will likely reverberate across the US in coming years. As noted by Ronnie Cummins in a recent Huffington Post article:11

“Strictly speaking, Vermont’s H.112 applies only to Vermont. But it will have the same impact on the marketplace as a federal law. Because national food and beverage companies and supermarkets will not likely risk the ire of their customers by admitting that many of the foods and brands they are selling in Vermont are genetically engineered, and deceptively labeled as ‘natural’ or ‘all natural’ while simultaneously trying to conceal this fact in the other 49 states and North American markets. As a seed executive for Monsanto admitted 20 years ago, ‘If you put a label on genetically engineered food you might as well put a skull and crossbones on it.'”

The Burlington Free Press12 recently ran an excellent article on how the Vermont GMO labeling bill was won. I would highly encourage you to read it in its entirety, to get a real-world view of just how effective a grassroots campaign can be. It really boils down to letting your representatives know what you want. Despite the threat of a lawsuit from food manufacturers, Vermont legislators realized that their constituents were serious about wanting GMOs labeled. And they voted accordingly. Indeed, the chemical technology and food industry knows this, which is why they’ve fought tooth and nail to stop any and all GMO labeling efforts in the US. They’ve even threatened to sue any state that passes a labeling law—a threat taken seriously by Vermont.

 

Vermont Braces for Legal Challenge

 

Vermont Senate agreed to establish a state defense fund to pay for legal costs associated with defending the law against any legal challenge by the food industry, which will undoubtedly be spearheaded by the Grocery Manufacturers Association (GMA). It’s unlikely that the industry would win such a legal challenge, however. As reported by the Burlington Free Press:13

“Rep. Teo Zagar, D-Barnard, told House members that… changes the Senate made will help the state prevail in court. ‘This bill has been re-engineered to be more resistant to legal challenge,’ he said.”

As you may recall, after getting caught laundering money and narrowly defeating the Washington labeling campaign, the Grocery Manufacturers Association (GMA) sued the state of Washington, arguing they should be allowed to hide their donors—which is a direct violation of state campaign disclosure laws—in order to “speak with one voice” for the interests of the food industry.14 I subsequently named the GMA “the most evil corporation on the planet,” considering the fact that it consists primarily of pesticide producers and junk food manufacturers who are hell-bent on violating some of your most basic rights, just to protect their own profits.

The GMA was initially forced to reveal their donors, but has since removed their online membership list—again hiding their members to prevent consumer awareness of who is behind this radical front group. You can find the cached members list on web.archive.org15 however. Not surprisingly, Pepsi, Coke, and Nestle—top purveyors of chronic ill health—were the top funders trying to hide their identity during the Washington State GMO labeling campaign.

 

Read More Here

Enhanced by Zemanta

The Center for Food Safety is warning the public that the EPA is set to approve the direct spraying of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on Dow Chemical’s genetically engineered corn and soybeans. That chemical is one-half of the compound called “Agent Orange” used in Vietnam to destroy foliage; it caused cancer among Vietnam veterans. EPA will render a decision after a 30 day comment period. Dow developed the GE crops, known as “Enlist”, to withstand high doses of 2,4-D (which it also sells) after its disastrous Roundup Ready crops created glyphosate-resistant superweeds.

Crop DustingYou can sign a petition opposing this action at CFS web site called “Dow Watch”. CFS opposes this move by the EPA because they state, “wide scale use of herbicides in tandem with GE crops has led to an epidemic of herbicide resistant weeds, and the next step in the chemical arms race is Dow Chemical’s 2,4-D, a chemical linked to major health problems including cancer, Parkinson’s disease, endocrine disruption, and reproductive problems.”

 

Read More Here

 

…..

​EPA advances approval of powerful weed killer for Dow’s ‘Agent Orange’ GMO crops

Published time: May 02, 2014 00:56
Edited time: May 03, 2014 14:35

Reuters / Doug Wilson / USDA
Photo / Handout

Reuters / Doug Wilson / USDA Photo / Handout

The US Environmental Protection Agency has revealed a proposal for mass use of Dow Chemical’s herbicide 2,4-D on the company’s genetically-engineered corn and soybeans. The GE crops were developed to withstand several herbicides, including 2,4-D.

Dow would be allowed to sell the herbicide if the EPA approves it following a 30-day public comment period.

The 2,4-D chemical, combined with glyphosate, makes up the herbicide Enlist Duo. 2,4-D also makes up half of the toxic mix in the now infamous ‘Agent Orange,’ used by the United States during the Vietnam War, which is thought to have resulted in the deaths of an estimated 400,000 people and birth defects in 500,000 others.

Dow’s genetically-engineered corn and soybeans – known as Enlist – have received preliminary approval from the US Department of Agriculture. Should Enlist crops win ultimate authorization, the USDA said that would increase the annual use of 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) in the United States from 26 million pounds per year to possibly 176 million pounds.

The crops are designed to withstand high doses of glyphosate – brought to market by biotech giant Monsanto as their Roundup weed killer – and 2,4-D. Dow’s corn and soybeans thus earned the derogatory name ‘Agent Orange’ crops by opponents of both the highly-toxic chemical mix and the controversial use of genetically-modified organisms (GMOs) in large-scale agriculture.

 

Read More Here

…..

Enhanced by Zemanta


Drawing by Gonneke and released into public domain on Wikimedia Commons

 

The Cornucopia Institute logo and header

April 9th, 2014

Sustainable Pulse

  • Urine testing shows glyphosate levels over 10 times higher than in Europe
  • Initial testing shows Monsanto and Global regulatory bodies are wrong regarding bio-accumulation of glyphosate, leading to serious public health concerns
  • Testing commissioners urge USDA and EPA to place temporary ban on all use of Glyphosate-based herbicides to protect public health, until further more comprehensive testing of glyphosate in breast milk is completed.

In the first ever testing on glyphosate herbicide in the breast milk of American women, Moms Across America and Sustainable Pulse have found ‘high’ levels in 3 out of the 10 samples tested. The shocking results point to glyphosate levels building up in women’s bodies over a period of time, which has until now been refuted by both global regulatory authorities and the biotech industry.

The levels found in the breast milk testing of 76 ug/l to 166 ug/l are 760 to 1600 times higher than the European Drinking Water Directive allows for individual pesticides. They are however less than the 700 ug/l maximum contaminant level (MCL) for glyphosate in the U.S., which was decided upon by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) based on the now seemingly false premise that glyphosate was not bio-accumulative.

 

Read More Here

Enhanced by Zemanta