Category: Space


March 31, 2014

Organic Ejecta –Clues to Violent Events in the History of the Universe

 

Pinwheel_Spitzer

 

Exploding stars, random impacts involving comets and meteorites, and even near misses between two bodies can create regions of great heat and high pressure. Researchers from Imperial College London have now developed a method for analysing the pressure experienced by tiny samples of organic material that may have been ejected from dying stars before making a long journey through the cosmos. The researchers have investigated a type of aromatic hydrocarbon called dimethylnaphthalene, which should enable them to identify violent events in the history of the universe.

The team also believe that their new technique could be applied on Mars, potentially using the existing technology on-board roving laboratories such as the one on the Mars Science Laboratory Mission to glean information about sources of organic matter on the red planet. Recognising the pressures recorded in the aromatic hydrocarbons can help to reveal whether it came from processes generated from ancient living organisms.Samples of dimethylnaphthalene are found in meteorites. Previously, scientists have only had the ability to investigate how they have been affected by heat. The Imperial researchers say their method for detecting periods when dimethylnaphthalenes have experienced high pressure will now allow for a much more comprehensive analysis of organic materials.

 

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Earth Watch Report  -  Space

Image Source  NASA

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RSOE EDIS

 Earth approaching objects (objects that are known in the next 30 days)

 

Object Name Apporach Date Left AU Distance LD Distance Estimated Diameter* Relative Velocity
(2012 RJ15) 11th March 2014 0 day(s) 0.1119 43.5 51 m – 110 m 13.72 km/s 49392 km/h
(2002 SZ) 11th March 2014 0 day(s) 0.1059 41.2 220 m – 490 m 19.28 km/s 69408 km/h
(2012 RJ15) 11th March 2014 0 day(s) 0.1119 43.5 51 m – 110 m 13.72 km/s 49392 km/h
(2002 SZ) 11th March 2014 0 day(s) 0.1059 41.2 220 m – 490 m 19.28 km/s 69408 km/h
(2001 SQ3) 11th March 2014 0 day(s) 0.1871 72.8 130 m – 280 m 18.26 km/s 65736 km/h
(2013 UX2) 12th March 2014 1 day(s) 0.1482 57.7 3.8 m – 8.6 m 2.94 km/s 10584 km/h
(2010 FR9) 14th March 2014 3 day(s) 0.1210 47.1 16 m – 36 m 10.80 km/s 38880 km/h
(2014 AY28) 16th March 2014 5 day(s) 0.0429 16.7 120 m – 270 m 5.37 km/s 19332 km/h
(2005 FN) 17th March 2014 6 day(s) 0.0812 31.6 11 m – 25 m 8.09 km/s 29124 km/h
(2012 XB112) 17th March 2014 6 day(s) 0.1175 45.7 2.5 m 4.02 km/s 14471.999999999998 km/h
(2013 WT44) 17th March 2014 6 day(s) 0.0327 12.7 320 m – 710 m 11.13 km/s 40068 km/h
(2004 YC) 19th March 2014 8 day(s) 0.1054 41.0 20 m – 45 m 9.35 km/s 33660 km/h
(2003 YX1) 20th March 2014 9 day(s) 0.1654 64.4 180 m – 390 m 11.76 km/s 42336 km/h
322756 (2001 CK32) 20th March 2014 9 day(s) 0.1465 57.0 440 m – 990 m 9.06 km/s 32616 km/h
(2011 HH) 20th March 2014 9 day(s) 0.1016 39.5 23 m – 52 m 5.04 km/s 18144 km/h
(2012 FK15) 21st March 2014 10 day(s) 0.1495 58.2 13 m – 30 m 13.66 km/s 49176 km/h
(2003 HT42) 22nd March 2014 11 day(s) 0.0942 36.6 29 m – 65 m 7.54 km/s 27144 km/h
325102 (2008 EY5) 23rd March 2014 12 day(s) 0.0789 30.7 250 m – 570 m 12.89 km/s 46404 km/h
(2013 GW68) 24th March 2014 13 day(s) 0.1950 75.9 110 m – 240 m 16.74 km/s 60263.99999999999 km/h
(2011 EN40) 24th March 2014 13 day(s) 0.1662 64.7 220 m – 490 m 27.82 km/s 100152 km/h
(2013 FD8) 25th March 2014 14 day(s) 0.0851 33.1 19 m – 43 m 11.55 km/s 41580 km/h
143649 (2003 QQ47) 25th March 2014 14 day(s) 0.1283 49.9 880 m – 2.0 km 32.41 km/s 116675.99999999999 km/h
(2012 FM35) 27th March 2014 16 day(s) 0.1916 74.6 9.2 m – 21 m 8.84 km/s 31824 km/h
(2011 FT53) 27th March 2014 16 day(s) 0.1007 39.2 23 m – 52 m 12.36 km/s 44496 km/h
(2012 EA) 29th March 2014 18 day(s) 0.0356 13.9 11 m – 25 m 6.00 km/s 21600 km/h
(2009 FW25) 29th March 2014 18 day(s) 0.0715 27.8 56 m – 120 m 12.34 km/s 44424 km/h
(2009 FD) 31st March 2014 20 day(s) 0.1009 39.3 100 m – 230 m 12.89 km/s 46404 km/h
(2009 SA100) 31st March 2014 20 day(s) 0.0445 17.3 44 m – 99 m 7.99 km/s 28764 km/h
(2010 GD35) 31st March 2014 20 day(s) 0.0489 19.0 33 m – 75 m 11.07 km/s 39852 km/h
(2009 CT) 31st March 2014 20 day(s) 0.1984 77.2 320 m – 710 m 13.35 km/s 48060 km/h
243566 (1995 SA) 01st April 2014 21 day(s) 0.1879 73.1 970 m – 2.2 km 14.22 km/s 51192 km/h
(2001 QC34) 01st April 2014 21 day(s) 0.1082 42.1 250 m – 570 m 4.78 km/s 17208 km/h
(2013 TT5) 03rd April 2014 23 day(s) 0.0959 37.3 15 m – 33 m 4.04 km/s 14544 km/h
86878 (2000 HD24) 03rd April 2014 23 day(s) 0.1084 42.2 800 m – 1.8 km 20.44 km/s 73584 km/h
(2010 GC35) 06th April 2014 26 day(s) 0.0677 26.3 31 m – 68 m 4.59 km/s 16524 km/h
(2008 OC6) 07th April 2014 27 day(s) 0.1949 75.8 530 m – 1.2 km 14.34 km/s 51624 km/h
330659 (2008 GG2) 09th April 2014 29 day(s) 0.1450 56.4 77 m – 170 m 7.16 km/s 25776 km/h
1 AU = ~150 million kilometers,1 LD = Lunar Distance = ~384,000 kilometers Source: NASA-NEO

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Space Weather

by Dr. Tony Phillips.

 All Sky Fireball Network

Every night, a network of NASA all-sky cameras scans the skies above the United States for meteoritic fireballs. Automated software maintained by NASA’s Meteoroid Environment Office calculates their orbits, velocity, penetration depth in Earth’s atmosphere and many other characteristics. Daily results are presented here on Spaceweather.com.

On Mar. 10, 2014, the network reported 3 fireballs.
(3 sporadics)

In this diagram of the inner solar system, all of the fireball orbits intersect at a single point–Earth. The orbits are color-coded by velocity, from slow (red) to fast (blue). [Larger image] [movies]

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Universe Today

Now’s the Time to See Asteroid Pallas at its Best

by David Dickinson on February 18, 2014

2 Pallas

Images of 2 Pallas taken by Hubble (right) and a simulation (left) of the surface. Credit: NASA/JPL.

Looking for something off of the beaten celestial path to observe? The coming weeks will offer telescope users a rare chance to catch a well known asteroid, as it puts on its best show for over two decades.

Over the coming weeks, 2 Pallas, one of the “big four” asteroids – or do you say minor/dwarf planet/planetoid? – reaches a favorable observing point known as opposition. Gliding northward through the constellations of Hydra and Sextans through February and March 2014, 2 Pallas presents a favorable binocular challenge for both northern and southern hemisphere observers as it rises to the east opposite to the setting Sun and transits the local meridian around midnight.

And although 2 Pallas reaches opposition roughly every 16 months as seen from our Earthly vantage point, 2014 provides a chance to catch it under exceptional circumstances. And to top it off, the other “Big 4” asteroids – 1 Ceres, 3 Juno and 4 Vesta – are all currently visible as well and reach opposition in the January through April time frame.

Pallas HST

2 Pallas as imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope. Credit: NASA

Pallas and its brethren also have a checkered history though the course of 19th century astronomy.  The second minor planet to be discovered, Heinrich Wilhelm Olbers spied 2 Pallas near opposition on the night of March 28th, 1802. Olbers made this discovery observing from his home rooftop observatory in Bremen, Germany using a five foot – telescopes were often measured in focal length rather than aperture in those days – Dollond refractor.

Olbers discovered 2 Pallas on the border of the astronomical constellations of Virgo and Coma Berenices shining at magnitude +7.5.

Pallas orbit

A simulation of the orbit of 2 Pallas near opposition this month. Credit: NASA/JPL Horizons.

If the name Olbers sounds familiar, it’s because he also lent it to the paradox that now bears his name. Obler’s paradox was one of the first true questions in cosmology posed in a scientific framework that asked: if the universe is actually infinite in time and space, then why isn’t the sky infinitely bright? And, on a curious side note, it was American horror author Edgar Allan Poe that delivered the answer.

But now back to our solar system. Olbers also discovered 4 Vesta just five years after Pallas.

He was definitely on a roll. The discoveries of these space rocks also grabbed the attention of Olbers contemporary, Johann Bode. Bode had formulated a law now known as the Titus-Bode Law that seemed to put the spacing of then known bodies of the solar system in tidy order. In fact, the Titus-Bode law seemed to predict that a body should lie between Mars and Jupiter, and for a brief time in the 18th century — and again in 2006 when the International Astronomical Union let Eris and Pluto in the door before kicking them back out — Ceres, Pallas, Juno and Vesta were all considered planets.

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Universe Today

A mosaic of two wide field images taken from the Nevada desert, with the view stretching from Cepheus to the Milky Way core in Sagittarius. Credit and copyright: Tanja Sund. A mosaic of two wide field images taken from the Nevada desert, with the view stretching from Cepheus to the Milky Way core in Sagittarius. Credit and copyright: Tanja Sund.

This gorgeous view of the Milky Way was taken by astrophotographer Tanja Sund during a trip to the desert in Nevada. Made from just two images, this long exposure (180 seconds) mosaic has incredible detail and stunning clarity. You seriously need to click on this image to see a larger version!

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Earth Watch Report  -  Space

Image Source  NASA

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  Earth approaching objects (objects that are known in the next 30 days)

Object Name Apporach Date Left AU Distance LD Distance Estimated Diameter* Relative Velocity
(2013 BZ45) 02nd February 2014 1 day(s) 0.0688 26.8 110 m – 250 m 8.98 km/s 32328 km/h
(2009 CG) 04th February 2014 3 day(s) 0.1311 51.0 70 m – 160 m 12.93 km/s 46548 km/h
(2011 MW1) 05th February 2014 4 day(s) 0.1017 39.6 92 m – 210 m 11.06 km/s 39816 km/h
348306 (2005 AY28) 06th February 2014 5 day(s) 0.0394 15.3 130 m – 300 m 17.06 km/s 61415.99999999999 km/h
(2004 AS1) 08th February 2014 7 day(s) 0.1286 50.0 210 m – 470 m 12.85 km/s 46260 km/h
(2006 DP14) 09th February 2014 8 day(s) 0.0160 6.2 460 m – 1.0 km 27.13 km/s 97668 km/h
(2013 BS45) 10th February 2014 9 day(s) 0.0317 12.3 18 m – 39 m 3.76 km/s 13536 km/h
(2007 BG) 13th February 2014 12 day(s) 0.1476 57.5 330 m – 750 m 7.99 km/s 28764 km/h
(2008 BP16) 16th February 2014 15 day(s) 0.1672 65.1 120 m – 270 m 19.78 km/s 71208 km/h
(2000 EM26) 17th February 2014 16 day(s) 0.0227 8.8 120 m – 270 m 12.37 km/s 44532 km/h
85953 (1999 FK21) 17th February 2014 16 day(s) 0.1910 74.3 590 m 24.29 km/s 87444 km/h
(1999 SK10) 20th February 2014 19 day(s) 0.1838 71.5 320 m – 710 m 11.48 km/s 41328 km/h
(2012 DY43) 20th February 2014 19 day(s) 0.0403 15.7 67 m – 150 m 19.41 km/s 69876 km/h
(2001 EB18) 21st February 2014 20 day(s) 0.1161 45.2 370 m – 820 m 26.33 km/s 94788 km/h
(2006 DS14) 22nd February 2014 21 day(s) 0.1644 64.0 220 m – 490 m 14.41 km/s 51876 km/h
(2009 EC1) 25th February 2014 24 day(s) 0.1246 48.5 73 m – 160 m 8.07 km/s 29052 km/h
(2013 TN127) 01st March 2014 28 day(s) 0.1930 75.1 15 m – 34 m 8.18 km/s 29448 km/h
(2006 FV) 01st March 2014 28 day(s) 0.1145 44.5 64 m – 140 m 6.19 km/s 22284 km/h
1 AU = ~150 million kilometers,1 LD = Lunar Distance = ~384,000 kilometers Source: NASA-NEO

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Milky Way Galaxy May Have Formed Inside-Out, Study

Jan 21, 2014 by Sci-News.com

Our Milky Way Galaxy formed by expanding out from the center, suggests analysis of first data from the Gaia-ESO survey – the ground-based extension to the Gaia space mission, launched by the European Space Agency at the end of 2013.

Radial metallicity gradients and age-metallicity relation of stars in the Milky Way disk. Image credit: University of Cambridge.

Radial metallicity gradients and age-metallicity relation of stars in the Milky Way disk. Image credit: University of Cambridge.

The astronomers involved with the Gaia-ESO project took detailed observations of stars with a wide range of ages and locations in the Galactic disc to accurately determine their ‘metallicity’: the amount of chemical elements in a star other than hydrogen and helium, the two elements most stars are made from.

Immediately after the Big Bang, the Universe consisted almost entirely of hydrogen and helium, with levels of “contaminant metals” growing over time. Consequently, older stars have fewer elements in their make-up – so have lower metallicity.

“The different chemical elements of which stars are made are created at different rates – some in massive stars which live fast and die young, and others in sun-like stars with more sedate multi-billion-year lifetimes,” said Prof Gerry Gilmore from the University of Cambridge, who is a co-author of the paper submitted to the journal Astronomy and Astrophysics (arXiv.org version).

Massive stars, which have short lives and die as ‘core-collapse supernovae’, produce huge amounts of magnesium during their explosive death throes. This catastrophic event can form a neutron star or a black hole, and even trigger the formation of new stars.

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Published time: January 16, 2014 20:50
image from www.eso.org

image from http://www.eso.org

Scientists discovered three new planets orbiting stars in a cluster about 2,500 light years from Earth. Remarkably, among them they found an exoplanet orbiting a star which is almost identical to our own Sun in all respects.

The fascinating find was made by astronomers from the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Germany. They have been monitoring 88 promising-looking stars in a formation called Messier 67 for the past six years. Messier 67 is a cluster of about 500 stars in the constellation of Cancer.

The discovery is so exciting because it is the first time astronomers have found an exoplanet orbiting a star which is almost identical to our sun, in a cluster of stars. The star, similar to the sun in mass, temperature and chemical composition, was named YBP1194.

The second planet that was discovered is also orbiting a star similar to the Sun. The third one is circling a more massive and evolved red giant star.

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These videos contain some  religious  based opinion that some may not  agree with.  I am posting the  videos  for the  facts  that are  introduced in reference  to  foreign bodies  that have been  observed.

Whether  you accept the  religious  commentary or  not  is completely a  very  personal option  on  your part.  My  main interest  is the information being provided.  Please do not challenge  me on the religious  aspect as this  video  was made  by another  person  not  by me.  Please address any  commentary  or  complaint to the  originator of  the  video itself.  I  will not be  drawn into  an  argument  as  to the  validity  of  the religious commentaries being made.

~Desert Rose~

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Unbelievable Endtime Events Now! Part One

BPEarthWatch BPEarthWatch

Published on Jan 17, 2014

The BEST YOUTUBE VIDEO EVER. End Time Events Explained. Anthony Patch and Michael, The Meeting of the Minds.
http://www.blogtalkradio.com/bpearthw…

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Unbelievable Endtime Events. Part Two


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End Time Events, Part 3


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BPEarthWatch BPEarthWatch

Published on Jan 11, 2014

Solar,Quake,Volcano and Weather Links http://www.BpearthWatch.Com
http://www.amsmeteors.org/fireball_ev…
http://lunarmeteoritehunters.blogspot…

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Space Weather

All Sky Fireball Network

by Dr. Tony Phillips.

 

Every night, a network of NASA all-sky cameras scans the skies above the United States for meteoritic fireballs. Automated software maintained by NASA’s Meteoroid Environment Office calculates their orbits, velocity, penetration depth in Earth’s atmosphere and many other characteristics. Daily results are presented here on Spaceweather.com.

On Jan. 11, 2014, the network reported 14 fireballs.
(14 sporadics)

In this diagram of the inner solar system, all of the fireball orbits intersect at a single point–Earth. The orbits are color-coded by velocity, from slow (red) to fast (blue). [Larger image] [movies]

 

Near Earth Asteroids

Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) are space rocks larger than approximately 100m that can come closer to Earth than 0.05 AU. None of the known PHAs is on a collision course with our planet, although astronomers are finding new ones all the time.

On January 12, 2014 there were 1450 potentially hazardous asteroids.

Recent & Upcoming Earth-asteroid encounters:

Asteroid
Date(UT)
Miss Distance
Size
2014 AD16
Jan 8
1.5 LD
15 m
2014 AE29
Jan 9
4.1 LD
15 m
2014 AW32
Jan 10
0.5 LD
15 m
2014 AZ32
Jan 11
6.2 LD
28 m
2007 SJ
Jan 21
18.9 LD
1.9 km
2012 BX34
Jan 28
9.6 LD
13 m
2006 DP14
Feb 10
6.2 LD
730 m
2000 EM26
Feb 18
8.8 LD
195 m
2000 EE14
Mar 6
64.6 LD
1.8 km
2003 QQ47
Mar 26
49.9 LD
1.4 km

Notes: LD means “Lunar Distance.” 1 LD = 384,401 km, the distance between Earth and the Moon. 1 LD also equals 0.00256 AU. MAG is the visual magnitude of the asteroid on the date of closest approach.

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Spaceweather.com

SPACE WEATHER BALLOON UPDATE:

by Dr. Tony Phillips.

The payload of a space weather balloon launched Jan. 8th by the students of Earth to Sky Calculus has been recovered from its landing site in Death Valley National Park. The purpose of the flight was to study a solar radiation storm in progress at the time of the launch. Analyzing the data may take a few days. Meanwhile, here is the view from the stratosphere:

These pictures were taken by a pair of Hero3+ cameras looking out of the payload capsule. The upper frame shows the Sierra Nevada mountain range, unusually brown for this time of year as California endures a historic drought. The lower frame captures the balloon popping at an altitude of approximately 100,000 feet. Click on each frame for a closer look. The landscape shot was made using the Hero3+’s new “superview mode”–a favorite of snowboarders and now, for the first time, balloonists!

In addition to cameras, the payload contained an x-ray/gamma-ray dosimeter, a GPS altimeter, and a cryogenic thermometer. Together these instruments can form a complete thermal and radiation profile of the atmosphere throughout the flight. The students plan to pay special attention to data collected at aviation altitudes to learn how much radiation air travelers absorb during periods of high solar activity.

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