Geoscientists have for the first time revealed the magma plumbing beneath Mount St. Helens, the most active volcano in the Pacific Northwest. The emerging picture includes a giant magma chamber, between 5 and 12 kilometers below the surface, and a second, even larger one, between 12 and 40 kilometers below the surface. The two chambers appear to be connected in a way that could help explain the sequence of events in the 1980 eruption that blew the lid off Mount St. Helens.
So far the researchers only have a two-dimensional picture of the deep chamber. But if they find it extends to the north or south, that would imply that the regional volcanic hazard is more distributed rather than discrete, says Alan Levander, a geophysicist at Rice University in Houston, Texas, and a leader of the experiment that is doing the subterranean imaging. “It isn’t a stretch to say that there’s something down there feeding everything,” he adds.
Levander unveiled the results on 3 November at a meeting of the Geological Society of America in Baltimore, Maryland—the first detailed images from the largest-ever campaign to understand the guts of a volcano with geophysical methods. The campaign, “imaging magma under St. Helens” (iMUSH), started in 2014 when researchers stuck 2500 seismometers in the ground on trails and logging roads around the volcano. They then detonated 23 explosive shots, each with the force of a small earthquake. “You’d feel this enormous roll in the ground, and everyone would go, ‘Oh wow’,” Levander says.
IMUSH: MAGMA RESERVOIRS FROM THE UPPER CRUST TO THE MOHO INFERRED FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION VP AND VS TOMOGRAPHY BENEATH MOUNT ST. HELENS
KISER, Eric1, LEVANDER, Alan2, PALOMERAS, Immaculada1, ZELT, Colin A.1, SCHMANDT, Brandon3, HANSEN, Steven3, HARDER, Steven4, CREAGER, Kenneth5 and VIDALE, John E.5, (1)Earth Science, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005, (2)Earth Science, Rice University, 6100 Main Street MS-126, Houston, TX 77005, (3)Earth & Planetary Sciences, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, (4)Dept. of Geological Sciences, University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W. University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968, (5)Earth & Space Sciences, University of Washington, Johnson Hall Rm-070 Box 351310, 4000 15th Avenue NE, Seattle, WA 98195, firstname.lastname@example.org
Seismic investigations following the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens have led to a detailed model of the magmatic and tectonic structure directly beneath the volcano. These studies suffer from limited resolution below ~10 km, making it difficult to estimate the volume of the shallow magma reservoir beneath the volcano, the regions of magma entry into the lower crust, and the connectivity of this magma system throughout the crust. The latter is particularly interesting as one interpretation of the Southern Washington Cascades Conductor (SWCC) suggests that the Mount St Helens and Mount Adams volcanic systems are connected in the crust (Hill et al., 2009).
The multi-disciplinary iMUSH (imaging Magma Under St. Helens) project is designed to investigate these and other fundamental questions associated with Mount St. Helens. Here we present the first high-resolution 2D Vp and Vs models derived from travel-time data from the iMUSH 3D active-source seismic experiment. Significant lateral heterogeneity exists in both the Vp and Vs models. Directly beneath Mount St. Helens we observe a high Vp/Vs body, inferred to be the upper/middle crustal magma reservoir, between 4 and 13 km depth. Southeast of this body is a low Vp column extending from the Moho to approximately 15 km depth. A cluster of low frequency events, typically associated with injection of magma, occurs at the northwestern boundary of this low Vp column. Much of the recorded seismicity between the shallow high Vp/Vs body and deep low Vp column took place in the months preceding and hours following the May 18, 1980 eruption. This may indicate a transient migration of magma between these two reservoirs associated with this eruption.
Outside of the inferred magma bodies that feed Mount St. Helens, we observe several other interesting velocity anomalies. In the lower crust, high Vp features bound the low Vp column. One explanation for these features is the presence of lower crustal cumulates associated with Tertiary ancestral Cascade volcanism. West of Mount St. Helens, high Vp/Vs regions in the upper and middle crust have eastern boundaries that are close to the eastern boundaries of the accreted Siletzia terrain inferred from magnetic data. Finally, a low Vp channel northeast of Mount St. Helens between 14 and 18 km depth correlates well with the location of the SWCC.
Published: 11:16 EST, 5 November 2015 | Updated: 13:59 EST, 5 November 2015
Lava, steam and ash began erupting from Mount St Helens in 2004 but it fell silent again in 2008. Geologists have been closely monitoring the volcano for signs that the unrest may begin again
Its scarred and jagged crater is a reminder of the terrible devastation that Mount St Helens wrought over the Washington countryside 35 years ago.
Now a new study of the volcanic plumbing lurking beneath the 8,363ft (2,459 metre) summit suggests the volcano could yet again blow its top in an explosive eruption.
Geologists studying the volcano, which is responsible for the most deadly eruption in US history, have discovered a second enormous magma chamber buried far beneath the surface.
The IMUSH project has detected signs that a second larger magma chamber may lie beneath Mount St Helens, filling the chamber directly under the volcano from below (illustrated) through a series of earthquakes. The chamber may also connect Mount St Helens to other nearby volcanoes
The American Dream Is Becoming A Nightmare And Life As We Know It Is About To Change
By Michael Snyder, on November 1st, 2015
More than 25 million people live in the vicinity of North America’s 2nd-highest volcano, and in recent weeks this volcano has been steadily rumbling and has been spewing out massive amounts of black smoke and ash. I have previously written about “the most dangerous mountain in the United States” (Mt. Rainier), but if the volcano that I am talking about today experiences a full-blown explosive eruption it could potentially be a cataclysmic event beyond what most of us would dare to imagine. Popocatepetl is an Aztec word that means “smoking mountain”, and it is also the name of a giant volcano that sits approximately 50 miles away from Mexico City’s 18 million residents. “Popo”, as it is called by locals, was dormant for much of the 20th century, but it came back to life in 1994. And now all of this unusual activity in recent weeks has many wondering if a major eruption may be imminent.
Historians tell us that Popocatepetl had a dramatic impact on the ancient Aztecs. Giant mud flows produced by massive eruptions covered entire Aztec cities. In fact, some of these mud flows were so large that they buried entire pyramids in super-heated mud.
But we haven’t witnessed anything like that in any of our lifetimes, so it is hard to even imagine devastation of that magnitude.
In addition to Mexico City’s mammoth population, there are millions of others that live in the surrounding region. Overall, there are about 25 million people that live in the immediate vicinity of Popocatepetl. Thankfully, we haven’t seen a major eruption of the volcano in modern times, but at some point that will change.
As most of you already know, Mexico sits on the “Ring of Fire” that stretches along the outer rim of the Pacific Ocean. Over the past couple of years seismic activity throughout this area has started to really heat up, and according to Volcano Discovery there are dozens of volcanoes associated with the Ring of Fire that have recently erupted.
Published: 16:07 EST, 30 October 2015 | Updated: 14:58 EST, 31 October 2015
A gigantic ‘crack in the earth’ has opened over Wyoming.
The gigantic opening was spotted in the Big Horn Mountains in Wyoming this month.
Now, a geologist has suggested it is in fact a ‘slow-moving landslide’ – and warned it could get even bigger.
Gaping: A gigantic opening was spotted in the Big Horn Mountains in Wyoming this month. SNS Outfitter & Guides said ‘Everyone here is calling it ‘the gash’. It’s a really incredible sight’
The Wyoming Geological Survey’s Seth Wittke told GrindTV: ‘Without getting out there and looking at it, I can’t be positive, but from what I’ve seen on the Internet it looks like a slow-moving landslide.’
Growing pains? Wittke has said the crack may get larger ‘as long as there’s room for it to move it could keep moving’
He told the website: ‘A lot of landslides are caused by subsurface lubrication by ground moisture or water and things like that, or in this case, a spring.’
Wittke told GrindTV the crack may get larger ‘as long as there’s room for it to move it could keep moving.’
He explained to The Powell Tribune that ‘A number of things trigger them, moisture in the subsurface which causes weakness in soil or geology, and any process that would weaken the bedrock or unstabilize it somehow.’
Shell and Exxon’s €5bn problem: gas drilling that sets off earthquakes and wrecks homes
Groningen has been one of Europe’s richest gas fields for 30 years, and thousands of people say their homes have been damaged by the tremors that drilling sets off. Now a class action may finally bring them compensation – and force a rethink of European energy security
Saturday 10 October 2015 05.00 EDT
Five years ago, Annemarie Heite and her husband, Albert, bought their dream home; a traditional 19th-century farmhouse in Groningen province in the northern Netherlands. The couple planned to raise their two young daughters in this charming corner of the Dutch countryside. “Then, the living was still easy, and affordable,” Annemarie says, her tone bittersweet and nostalgic. Today, their house is scheduled for demolition.
Hundreds of earthquakes have wrecked the foundations of the Heites’ home and made it unsafe to live in. Annemarie’s biggest fear is the safety of her daughters. She points to a room. “This is where my children sleep,” she says, “and everyday I’m just picking up pieces of bricks and stuff from the ceiling.”
Heite fears that her children may not be any safer at school. Her daughter Zara goes to a local primary school that has not been structurally reinforced to withstand strong earthquakes. “I feel powerless. It feels like I can’t do anything,” Heite says. “It’s not like I’m a frantic, hysterical person, but nobody is taking this seriously, not the school or the mayor, no one.”
Next door, Heite’s neighbour’s farmhouse is already a pile of rubble, which yellow JCBs are clearing away. “It’s collapsed. It’s gone,” Heite says. “They lived there for 30 years … and over there behind the trees, they demolished another house.”
Farmhouses like Heite’s are disappearing across the Groningen countryside as a peculiar, profound environmental crisis grips the province. At the heart of it are two oil companies, Shell and Exxon Mobil, and a government that, for two decades, denied responsibility for its actions and ignored the voices of citizens and scientists. The scandal has already cost the oil companies €1.2bn [£880m], but last month a landmark court ruling gave the victims fresh hope that their voices could be ignored no longer. And if they are right, the consequences could be profound: a compensation bill that could stretch to more than €5bn in Holland, an energy security headache for Europe, and an invocation for the world to think about the real cost of burning fossil fuels.
Strange things are happening in both outer and inner space
scientists are discovering that the Solar System, the sun, and life itself are mutating in totally unprecedented ways. They are reporting changes that are being recorded in space that have never been seen before
Studies show that the Sun and the planets themselves are physically changing at
an accelerated pace. Most notably, they are undergoing major changesin their atmospheres.
Let’s begin with the Sun. The Sun is the center of our Solar System, and all life that is on this Earth came from the Sun. If there were no Sun, we would not be alive. This is simply scientific fact. And so any changes that occur in or on the Sun will eventually affect every person alive.
We know that the Sun’s magnetic field has changed in the last 100 years. There’s a study by Dr. Mike Lockwood from Rutherford Appleton National Laboratories, in California. Dr. Lockwood has been investigating the Sun, and reports that since 1901 the overall magnetic field of the Sun has become stronger by 130 percent.
Moon: Earth’s moon is growing an atmosphere . Around the moon, there is this 6,000- kilometre- deep layer of Natrium that wasn’t there before. http://sirius.bu.edu/moontail/
Mercury: Unexpected polar ice discovered, along with a surprisingly strong intrinsic magnetic field.
Venus: 2500% increase in auroral brightness, and substantive global atmospheric changes in less than 40 years.
Mars: “Global Warming,” huge storms, disappearance of polar icecaps.
Jupiter: Over 200% increase in brightness of surrounding plasma clouds.(Huge belts in the giant planet’s atmosphere have changed color, radiation hotspots have faded and flared up again, and cloud levels have thickened and dissolved, all while space rocks have been hurtling into it the gas giant.) http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/…
Saturn: Major decrease in equatorial jet stream velocities in only ~30 years, accompanied by surprising surge of X-rays from equator.
Uranus: Big changes in brightness, increased global cloud activity (This planet used to have a very calm atmosphere. )
Neptune: 40% increase in atmospheric brightness. http://newsoffice.mit.edu/1998/triton
Earth: Substantial and obvious world-wide weather and geophysical changes. Earth’s Axis has changed.
On Earth, the overall volcanic activity increased 500 percent from 1875 to 1975, while the earthquake activity has increased by 400 percent since 1973. Dr. Dmitriev says that comparing the years 1963 to 1993, the overall number of natural disasters — hurricanes, typhoons, mud slides, tidal waves, etc. — has increased by 410 percent.
The Earth’s magnetic field has been decreasing. This decrease actually began 2000 years ago, but the rate of decrease suddenly became much more rapid 500 years ago. Now, in the last 20 years or so, the magnetic field has become erratic.http://www.grahamhancock.com/phorum/r…
Music credit: YouTube Audio Library
1) It’s Coming – Josh Kirsch & Media Right Productions
2) The Island – Soundtrack – My Name is Linkoln on Tyros4
You Tube channel “Telmo Gama” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M1Pf_m…
The area highlighted in yellow is the most susceptible to ash fall. civil protection
More activity seen at the Colima Volcano
Watch out for falling rocks, particularly if they’re hot, warns Civil Protection
Mexico News Daily | Thursday, September 24, 2015
The Colima Volcano continues to be active, sending a 1,500-meter column of smoke skyward at 7:08 this morning.
Civil Protection’s national coordinator, Luis Felipe Puente Espinosa, reported the eruption on his Twitter account, advising that the smoke, with a low ash content, was moving southwest.
The ash expelled by the volcano consists of material less than two millimeters in diameter and moves with the wind. But rock projectiles from the Volcano of Fire, as it is also known, are a different matter.
They can be up to 50 millimeters in diameter and are sent shooting out of the crater at high speed, before falling to the ground. This volcanic material can cause damage and injuries in populated areas, particularly if they are hot, which can result in fires.
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