“It’s a complex scenario,” says John Long from Flinders University in Adelaide, Australia. He says there are probably a lot of causes conspiring to drive these mass extinctions. But his latest work suggests fluctuations in essential minerals in the ocean could be an important, and so-far completely unexplored, cause.
Earlier this year, researchers discovered that periods when the ocean had high levels of trace elements – like zinc, copper, manganese and selenium – seemed to overlap with periods of high productivity, including the Cambrian explosion, when most groups of living animals first appeared.
Although spawning salmon are still returning to British Columbia’s rivers – including some, surprisingly, to urban streams – early returns indicate another troubling year, despite some bright spots.
“It really is a mixed bag this year,” said Brian Riddell, president and CEO of the Pacific Salmon Foundation. “How the heck can we sum it up? I’d say it’s the good, the bad and the mysterious.”
There were good sockeye salmon returns to the Great Central Lake system on Vancouver Island and to the Nass River on the North Coast, he said.
But contrasting that were very poor returns on the Fraser River, where only about two million sockeye returned, far short of the more than six million predicted in preseason forecasts. Even more dramatic was the collapse of the pink salmon on the Fraser, with only about five million fish showing up when more than 14 million had been forecast.
The federal Department of Fisheries and Oceans declined to provide a spokesperson to talk about the salmon runs, saying it is too early to have firm numbers.
But Dr. Riddell said it is possible at this point to paint a broad picture, and the indication is that some stocks are in serious trouble.
file art … use copy from text …. A spawning sockeye salmon is seen making its way up the Adams River in Roderick Haig-Brown Provincial Park near Chase, B.C. Tuesday, Oct. 4, 2011. Predictions for this year’s salmon fishery on British Columbia’s Fraser River are so massive there’s no historical data to use to forecast the many millions of sockeye expected to return. THE CANADIAN PRESS/Jonathan Hayward ORG XMIT: CPT106
Photograph by: Jonathan Hayward , THE CANADIAN PRESS
The late South Thompson sockeye run has seen far fewer fish than expected, but the federal fisheries department says it’s still very preliminary with the final numbers not known until late December or January.
“In terms of the sockeye return, it’s much more disappointing than people were hoping to see this year,” said Greg Taylor, senior fisheries adviser for the Watershed Watch Salmon Society, a Vancouver-based non-profit organization that monitors wild salmon.
“They arrive in the spawning grounds in October, and the numbers they’re seeing are disturbingly low.”
Taylor noted that the Pacific Salmon Commission’s (PSC) pre-run estimate of 1.24 million late-run salmon was dropped to 200,000 for the entire Fraser River run, which includes the South Thompson, the Little Shuswap, Shuswap Lake and Adams River.
“It’s a very dramatic reduction.”
Although federal Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) officials cannot be interviewed about the preliminary numbers or the reasons for the smaller runs, a DFO update on Oct. 29 indicated that estimates of sockeye in the South Thompson were lower than expected.
Meager salmon catch one of worst seasons for Sonoma County fishermen
Arianna Skikos, left, Lorrie Petersen and Jack Chauvin cut and package locally caught salmon for their customers at Andy’s Produce Market, in Sebastopol, on Monday, Sept. 21, 2015. (Christopher Chung / The Press Democrat)
Commercial salmon fishing got off to a slow start in May due to windy weather and has stayed in a slump that local fishermen are blaming on unusually warm ocean water in one of the worst king salmon seasons in memory.
Some Bodega Bay-based anglers gave up rather than scramble for meager catches of underweight and undersized salmon, despite the relatively high dockside prices of $5 to $8 a pound.
Seafood distributors, meanwhile, are bringing in fresh, wild salmon from Fort Bragg and the Klamath River region in California to as far north as Alaska and Canada. “There’s always some fish around,” said Michael Lucas of North Coast Fisheries, a Santa Rosa wholesaler.
On Monday, local stores had salmon on ice for $16 to $20 a pound.
But for local fishermen, the season is a bust, with the catch through August at 30 percent of last year’s harvest and equally shy of the forecast for the current season.
Global warming may be responsible for AMOC’s slowdown but natural forces may also be at work, NASA said. AMOC is part of the complex circulation of currents that help take the warmer Gulf Stream water and move it through the basin.
The slime has been described as “a plague” by local fishermen. Photo: Roger Larsen/ University in Tromsø.
Mystery purple slime coats Norway fjord
Published: 10 Nov 2015 14:12 GMT+01:00
A mysterious purple slime has emerged off the coast of northern Norway, coating millions of cubic meters of a picturesque fjord with a strange mucoid, margarine-like substance.
“We have not been able to find out what this really is, other than that we are talking about large amounts of jellyfish,” Roger Larsen, associate professor at the University in Tromsø, told state news broadcaster NRK on Sunday.
“The images we are picking up from the echo sounders and other equipment are totally atypical. We have tried to gather information to find the answers, but I am absolutely sure that this is something we’ve never seen before.”
By News from Elsewhere……as found by BBC Monitoring
12 November 2015
Scientists in Norway say a huge area of reddish-purple slime which has appeared on the country’s northern coast could be the result of disintegrated jellyfish.
Fisherman first reported the emergence of the mucus in the Lyngen Fjord in late August, and now describe it as a “plague” which is causing problems for their sonar equipment, and coating their daily catch. The origin of the slime isn’t yet certain, but oceanographers at the Institute of Marine Research say cigar comb jellyfish could be to blame, The Local website reports.
Published: 11:55 EST, 12 November 2015 | Updated: 12:58 EST, 12 November 2015
A third mysterious black space object to fall from the sky into rural Spain has caused panic among locals.
The strange-looking black orb was found in the village of Villavieja in Murcia – becoming the latest instance of an increasingly bewildering phenomenon, the Olive Press reported.
It’s not yet known what the objects are, though theories range from UFOs to pieces of space debris.
The first instance of the strange phenomenon occurred one week ago, when Spanish goat farmers discovered the strange object, which bears a striking resemblance to the Star Wars torture device, the IT-O Interrogator, in Calasparra, Murcia.
The Civil Guard were called to investigate the black orb and the area was subsequently put under quarantine. Pictured is the second object to be found in the village earlier this week
The Civil Guard stated the object was an aerospace artefact and pointed to the possibility that it fell from a rocket or a satellite.
However, a few days later a second orb fell from the sky.
According to The Mirror, Jose Velez, the mayor of Calasparra, implored authorities to provide answers to worried residents.
‘Where are these objects coming from? Why are they falling here precisely?’
Geoscientists have for the first time revealed the magma plumbing beneath Mount St. Helens, the most active volcano in the Pacific Northwest. The emerging picture includes a giant magma chamber, between 5 and 12 kilometers below the surface, and a second, even larger one, between 12 and 40 kilometers below the surface. The two chambers appear to be connected in a way that could help explain the sequence of events in the 1980 eruption that blew the lid off Mount St. Helens.
So far the researchers only have a two-dimensional picture of the deep chamber. But if they find it extends to the north or south, that would imply that the regional volcanic hazard is more distributed rather than discrete, says Alan Levander, a geophysicist at Rice University in Houston, Texas, and a leader of the experiment that is doing the subterranean imaging. “It isn’t a stretch to say that there’s something down there feeding everything,” he adds.
Levander unveiled the results on 3 November at a meeting of the Geological Society of America in Baltimore, Maryland—the first detailed images from the largest-ever campaign to understand the guts of a volcano with geophysical methods. The campaign, “imaging magma under St. Helens” (iMUSH), started in 2014 when researchers stuck 2500 seismometers in the ground on trails and logging roads around the volcano. They then detonated 23 explosive shots, each with the force of a small earthquake. “You’d feel this enormous roll in the ground, and everyone would go, ‘Oh wow’,” Levander says.
IMUSH: MAGMA RESERVOIRS FROM THE UPPER CRUST TO THE MOHO INFERRED FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION VP AND VS TOMOGRAPHY BENEATH MOUNT ST. HELENS
KISER, Eric1, LEVANDER, Alan2, PALOMERAS, Immaculada1, ZELT, Colin A.1, SCHMANDT, Brandon3, HANSEN, Steven3, HARDER, Steven4, CREAGER, Kenneth5 and VIDALE, John E.5, (1)Earth Science, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005, (2)Earth Science, Rice University, 6100 Main Street MS-126, Houston, TX 77005, (3)Earth & Planetary Sciences, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, (4)Dept. of Geological Sciences, University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W. University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968, (5)Earth & Space Sciences, University of Washington, Johnson Hall Rm-070 Box 351310, 4000 15th Avenue NE, Seattle, WA 98195, firstname.lastname@example.org
Seismic investigations following the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens have led to a detailed model of the magmatic and tectonic structure directly beneath the volcano. These studies suffer from limited resolution below ~10 km, making it difficult to estimate the volume of the shallow magma reservoir beneath the volcano, the regions of magma entry into the lower crust, and the connectivity of this magma system throughout the crust. The latter is particularly interesting as one interpretation of the Southern Washington Cascades Conductor (SWCC) suggests that the Mount St Helens and Mount Adams volcanic systems are connected in the crust (Hill et al., 2009).
The multi-disciplinary iMUSH (imaging Magma Under St. Helens) project is designed to investigate these and other fundamental questions associated with Mount St. Helens. Here we present the first high-resolution 2D Vp and Vs models derived from travel-time data from the iMUSH 3D active-source seismic experiment. Significant lateral heterogeneity exists in both the Vp and Vs models. Directly beneath Mount St. Helens we observe a high Vp/Vs body, inferred to be the upper/middle crustal magma reservoir, between 4 and 13 km depth. Southeast of this body is a low Vp column extending from the Moho to approximately 15 km depth. A cluster of low frequency events, typically associated with injection of magma, occurs at the northwestern boundary of this low Vp column. Much of the recorded seismicity between the shallow high Vp/Vs body and deep low Vp column took place in the months preceding and hours following the May 18, 1980 eruption. This may indicate a transient migration of magma between these two reservoirs associated with this eruption.
Outside of the inferred magma bodies that feed Mount St. Helens, we observe several other interesting velocity anomalies. In the lower crust, high Vp features bound the low Vp column. One explanation for these features is the presence of lower crustal cumulates associated with Tertiary ancestral Cascade volcanism. West of Mount St. Helens, high Vp/Vs regions in the upper and middle crust have eastern boundaries that are close to the eastern boundaries of the accreted Siletzia terrain inferred from magnetic data. Finally, a low Vp channel northeast of Mount St. Helens between 14 and 18 km depth correlates well with the location of the SWCC.
Published: 11:16 EST, 5 November 2015 | Updated: 13:59 EST, 5 November 2015
Lava, steam and ash began erupting from Mount St Helens in 2004 but it fell silent again in 2008. Geologists have been closely monitoring the volcano for signs that the unrest may begin again
Its scarred and jagged crater is a reminder of the terrible devastation that Mount St Helens wrought over the Washington countryside 35 years ago.
Now a new study of the volcanic plumbing lurking beneath the 8,363ft (2,459 metre) summit suggests the volcano could yet again blow its top in an explosive eruption.
Geologists studying the volcano, which is responsible for the most deadly eruption in US history, have discovered a second enormous magma chamber buried far beneath the surface.
The IMUSH project has detected signs that a second larger magma chamber may lie beneath Mount St Helens, filling the chamber directly under the volcano from below (illustrated) through a series of earthquakes. The chamber may also connect Mount St Helens to other nearby volcanoes
Published: 16:07 EST, 30 October 2015 | Updated: 14:58 EST, 31 October 2015
A gigantic ‘crack in the earth’ has opened over Wyoming.
The gigantic opening was spotted in the Big Horn Mountains in Wyoming this month.
Now, a geologist has suggested it is in fact a ‘slow-moving landslide’ – and warned it could get even bigger.
Gaping: A gigantic opening was spotted in the Big Horn Mountains in Wyoming this month. SNS Outfitter & Guides said ‘Everyone here is calling it ‘the gash’. It’s a really incredible sight’
The Wyoming Geological Survey’s Seth Wittke told GrindTV: ‘Without getting out there and looking at it, I can’t be positive, but from what I’ve seen on the Internet it looks like a slow-moving landslide.’
Growing pains? Wittke has said the crack may get larger ‘as long as there’s room for it to move it could keep moving’
He told the website: ‘A lot of landslides are caused by subsurface lubrication by ground moisture or water and things like that, or in this case, a spring.’
Wittke told GrindTV the crack may get larger ‘as long as there’s room for it to move it could keep moving.’
He explained to The Powell Tribune that ‘A number of things trigger them, moisture in the subsurface which causes weakness in soil or geology, and any process that would weaken the bedrock or unstabilize it somehow.’
The spokesperson said that there was no threat of radioactive contamination following the explosion, while also adding that no one was injured in the blast. An explosion hit the Doel nuclear power station in northern Belgium on Sunday, a spokesperson of Electrabel energy corporation that operates Doel said.
An explosion occurred overnight at a nuclear power plant in Doel, northern Belgium, local media reported, adding that the blast caused a fire. The exact damage from the incident remains unknown. The blast happened around 11pm local time on Saturday. The fire started in Reactor 1 of the plant, but was soon extinguished by personnel. The explosion didn’t cause any threat to nature, Els De Clercq, spokeswoman from Belgian energy corporation Electrabel that runs the plant, told Het Laatste Nieuws. There was no fuel present at the time of the incident as the reactor had been shut due to its expired operational license. Doel Nuclear Power Station, one of the two nuclear power plants in the country, is located near the town of Doel in east Flanders. The plant employs about 800 people. According to the Nature journal and Columbia University in New York, the plant is in the most densely populated area of all nuclear power stations in the EU. About 9 million people live within a radius of 75km of the station.
An explosion hit the Doel nuclear power station in northern Belgium on Sunday, a spokesperson of Electrabel energy corporation that operates Doel said. The blast happened after fire started in Reactor 1 of the plant, which was soon extinguished by personnel. The exact damage from the incident remains unknown. The explosion didn’t cause any threat to nature, Els De Clercq, spokeswoman from Belgian energy corporation Electrabel that runs the plant, told Het Laatste Nieuws, Russia Today reported. There was no fuel present at the time of the incident as the reactor had been shut due to its expired operational license. Doel Nuclear Power Station, one of the two nuclear power plants in the country, is located near the town of Doel in east Flanders. The plant employs about 800 people. According to the Nature journal and Columbia University in New York, the plant is in the most densely populated area of all nuclear power stations in the EU. About 9 million people live within a radius of 75km of the station.
The Hunger Site – Your click helps to feed the hungry
FAIR USE NOTICE
The material on this site is provided for educational and informational purposes. It may contain copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. It is being made available in an effort to advance the understanding of scientific, environmental, economic, social justice and human rights issues etc. It is believed that this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without profit to those who have an interest in using the included information for research and educational purposes. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use', you must obtain permission from the copyright owner. The information on this site does not constitute legal or technical advice.
Any materials (ie. graphics, articles , commentary) that are original to this blog are copyrighted and signed by it's creator. Said original material may be shared with attribution. Please respect the work that goes into these items and give the creator his/her credit. Just as we share articles , graphics and photos always giving credit to their creators when available. Credit and a link back to the original source is required.
If you have an issue with anything posted here or would prefer we not use it . Please contact me. Any items that are requested to be removed by the copyright owner will be removed immediately. No threats needed or lawsuit required. If there is a problem and you do not wish your work to be showcased then we will happily find an alternative from the many sources readily available from creators who would find it amenable to having their work presented to the subscribers of this feed.
Thank you for your time and attention, blessings to all :)