Category: Anthropology


LA Times  Science

Neanderthal toe bone

This toe bone from a Neanderthal, discovered in Denisova Cave in Siberia, is helping scientists understand interbreeding among species of ancient humans. (Bence Viola / December 18, 2013)

A 50,000-year-old toe bone found in a Siberian cave is giving scientists a surprising view of the breeding habits of early humans.

In what has been described as a “Lord of the Rings”-type world, researchers say that Homo sapiens, Neanderthals and two other groups of early humans mingled and interbred thousands of years before all species but ours became extinct.

The findings were presented Wednesday in the journal Nature by a team of scientists who sequenced the DNA from the Neanderthal toe fossil and compared it to the genomes of 25 present-day humans, as well as the genome of a sister group to Neanderthals called Denisovans.

According to their analysis, Neanderthals contributed roughly 2% of their DNA to modern people outside Africa and half a percent to Denisovans, who contributed 0.2% of their DNA to Asian and Native American people.

The biggest surprise, though, was the finding that a fourth hominin contributed roughly 6% of the DNA in the Denisovan genome. The identity of this DNA donor remains a mystery.

“It is possible that this unknown hominin was what is known from the fossil record as Homo erectus,” said lead study author Kay Prufer, a geneticist at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany. “Further studies are necessary to support or reject this possibility.”

Geneticists and anthropologists said the inch-long bone and resulting analysis have greatly illuminated a period of time roughly 12,000 to 126,000 years ago.

“It does seem that Eurasia during the Late Pleistocene was an interesting place to be a hominin, with individuals of at least four quite diverged groups living, meeting and occasionally having sex,” biologist Ewan Birney of the European

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Published on Nov 6, 2013

Dr. Annalee Newitz is an editor of i09, was a lecturer at UC Berkeley, a policy analyst at the Electronic Frontier Foundation, a journalist at Wired, and author of ‘Scatter, Adapt, and Remember’.

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Eight Steps to Empire: The Culture Wars (Excerpt) | Operation Paul Revere InfoWars.com Contest

EightStepsToEmpire EightStepsToEmpire

Published on Apr 6, 2013

Eight Steps to Empire: The Culture Wars is a documentary exploring the concept of empire in the modern era. The film looks at the usage of diversion and cultural subversion as mechanisms of social control.

This 24-minute excerpt from the film is submitted as part of InfoWars.com’s Operation Paul Revere Contest (www.infowars.com/contest).

Originally scheduled for release in Spring 2011, the film’s release date has been pushed back due to a lack of funding. Production has been slow as the movie is being produced by a single person working on a $500 desktop computer.

For updates, follow:
eightstepstoempire.com
@8steps2empire
facebook/eightstepstoempire

Click here to watch the previously released trailer for the film: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ThKfZpPOjvI

Thank you for your support. Please share.

FAIR USE NOTICE: This video contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. All use of copyrighted material in this material is for the non-commercial purpose of social, political, and cultural critique, and intended to be educational. We believe this constitutes a ‘fair use’ of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material in this film is distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research and educational purposes.

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mensrightsTV

Uploaded on Mar 4, 2011

this is a 6-part Epic film that shows how Europeans actually made the migration thousands of years ago. There was no conspiracy by scientists to fabricate the information. Rather instead, the discoveries were independent from one another. And, the results were often discovered accidentally. This video is Not intended to erase the status of Native Americans throughout North America.

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Not  intended as  a challenge  or belittling  of  other  races  as  this is  not  race  related  , but  scientific.  Information that  had  not  been known  before and  has  set  the record  straight.  The  first   Europeans  that  set  foot  in North  America were  not the Explorers that  history has  claimed  for   so  very  long.  Europeans existed  on this   continent  for  thousands of years  longer  than  current  history  reflects according to this  discovery.  Or so it  seems……  very  interesting findings in this   video.

~~Desert Rose~

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White Native Americans – Where the first Americans Whites?

lolcox12345 lolcox12345

 

 

 

 

 

Published on Jul 19, 2012

Originally found here: http://vimeo.com/user331557/
Also see this documentary: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=maziRF…
I downloaded all the videos and combined them into one. The authors description:
“It is my intention that these videos promote the frank and open discussion of the ancient history of the Americas. Identity politics has no place here. I simply wish to connect the dots of research findings which now tells a very different story than we were taught as children.

(Go to first-americans.blogspot.com/ for my complete blog.)

You will see that the citations offered in this video series come from many mainstream universities, as well as the Smithsonian Institution. Virtually every idea is sourced, as you can see in about 9 minutes in the Summary chapter.

The peopling of the Americas appears to be much more complex than we initially thought – and more interesting.

“First Americans – Out of Europe” does not mean to imply that this is the last word on the “first Americans” but that of the very early migrants to the Americas, Europeans were part of this group. The earliest evidence now points in their direction. These people have a right to have their story told, as it will be ignored in the current PC dominated boring old media.

The picture is sure to change as research continues to come in. These are cool times in this area of science.

May 01, 2013 6:01 PM
The four cuts at the top of this skull "are clear chops to the forehead," says Smithsonian forensic anthropologist Douglas Owsley. Based on forensic evidence, researchers think the blows were made after the person died.

The four cuts at the top of this skull “are clear chops to the forehead,” says Smithsonian forensic anthropologist Douglas Owsley. Based on forensic evidence, researchers think the blows were made after the person died.

Donald E. Hurlbert/Smithsonian

“First they ate their horses, and then fed upon their dogs and cats, as well as rats, mice and snakes.”

So says James Horn of the historical group , paraphrasing an account by colony leader George Percy of what conditions were like for the hundreds of men and women stranded in Jamestown, Va., with little food in the dead of winter in 1609.

They even ate their shoes. And, apparently, at least one person.

Scientists who have recovered human bones from the English colony at Jamestown announced Wednesday that they show the marks of cannibalism.

It’s long been debated whether the colonists resorted to eating each other during “the starving time” of 1609 to 1610. The weather was harsh, and the hostile Indians were even harsher. Only 60 colonists survived that winter. This new finding would be the first hard evidence of cannibalism.

Last summer, Jamestown’s chief archaeologist, , dug up a human skull and a few other bones, along with some food remains. But these bones were different from others he’d found.

This forensic facial reconstruction shows what the 14-year-old, nicknamed "Jane," may have looked like. Scientists say the remains found at Jamestown are evidence of cannibalism over the winter of 1609-1610.

This forensic facial reconstruction shows what the 14-year-old, nicknamed “Jane,” may have looked like. Scientists say the remains found at Jamestown are evidence of cannibalism over the winter of 1609-1610.

Donald E. Hurlbert/Smithsonian

“The damage to the skull, and finding it with the other food remains, brought on serious thoughts that this was, indeed, evidence of survival cannibalism,” Kelso says.

Kelso took the bones to the Smithsonian’s Douglas Owsley, a renowned forensic anthropologist who has solved numerous criminal cases, as well as archaeological mysteries, based on human bones. Owsley determined that the Jamestown bones belonged to a girl, aged 14. They don’t know anything about her, but have given her a name: Jane.

Owsley found numerous cut marks on the cranium and jaw, all apparently done after the girl had died. “There are clear chops to the forehead. They are very closely spaced,” Owsley says.

 

Read Full Article Here

Graph modified after Verisimilus

The graph shows the percentage of marine animals becoming extinct. The five major events are:

Ordovician-Silurian, Late Devonian, Permo-Triassic, Triassic-Jurassic and Cretaceous-Paleogene.

Image Source

 

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March 23, 2013

Is Earth Undergoing a 6th Mass Extinction? –“99.9% of all Past Species Extinct”

 

 

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Of all species that have existed on Earth, 99.9 percent are now extinct. Many of them perished in five cataclysmic events. The classical “Big Five” mass extinctions identified by Raup and Sepkoski are widely agreed upon as some of the most significant: End Ordovician, Late Devonian, End Permian, End Triassic, and End Cretaceous. According to a recent poll, seven out of ten biologists think we are currently in the throes of a sixth mass extinction. Some say it could wipe out as many as 90 percent of all species living today. Other scientists dispute such dire projections.

“If you look at the fossil record, it is just littered with dead bodies from past catastrophes,” observes University of Washington paleontologist Peter Ward. Ward says that only one extinction in Earth’s past was caused by an asteroid impact – the event 65 million years ago that ended the age of the dinosaurs. All the rest, he claims, were caused by global warming.

Ward’s study, Under a Green Sky, explores extinctions in Earth’s past and predicts extinctions to come in the future. Ward demonstrates that the ancient past is not just of academic concern. Everyone has heard about how an asteroid did in the dinosaurs, and NASA and other agencies now track Near Earth objects.

Unfortunately, we may not be protecting ourselves against the likeliest cause of our species’ demise. Ward explains how those extinctions happened, and then applies those chilling lessons to the modern day: expect drought, superstorms, poison–belching oceans, mass extinction of much life, and sickly green skies.

The significant points Ward stresses are geologically rapid climate change has been the underlying cause of most great “extinction” events. Those events have been, observed Harvard evolutionary biologist Stephen Gould, major drivers of evolution.

Drastic climate change has not always been gradual; there is solid empirical evidence of catastrophic warming events taking place in centuries, perhaps even decades. The impact of atmospheric warming is most potent in its modification of ocean chemistry and of circulating currents; warming inevitably leads to non-mixing anoxic dead seas.

We are already in the middle, not the beginning, of an anthropogenic global warming, caused by agriculture and deforestation, which began some 10,000 years ago but which is now accelerating exponentially; though the earliest wave of anthropogenic warming has been stabilizing and beneficial to human development, it appears to have the potential for catastrophic effects within a lifetime or two.

Looking at the ancient evidence, Ward notes that ice caps began to shrink. “Melting all the ice caps causes a 75-meter increase in sea level will remove every coastal city on our planet.” It will also cover earth’s most productive farmland, the author warns, adding, “It will happen if we do not somehow control CO2 rise in the atmosphere.”

An analysis of the geological record of the Earth’s sea level, carried out by scientists at Princeton and Harvard universities supports Ward using a novel statistical approach that reveals the planet’s polar ice sheets are vulnerable to large-scale melting even under moderate global warming scenarios. Such melting would lead to a large and relatively rapid rise in global sea level.

According to the analysis, an additional 2 degrees of global warming could commit the planet to 6 to 9 meters (20 to 30 feet) of long-term sea level rise. This rise would inundate low-lying coastal areas where hundreds of millions of people now reside. It would permanently submerge New Orleans and other parts of southern Louisiana, much of southern Florida and other parts of the U.S. East Coast, much of Bangladesh, and most of the Netherlands, unless unprecedented and expensive coastal protection were undertaken. And while the researchers’ findings indicate that such a rise would likely take centuries to complete, if emissions of greenhouse gases are not abated, the planet could be committed during this century to a level of warming sufficient to trigger this outcome.

 

Read Full Article Here

 

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Owen Jarus
LiveScience
Wed, 06 Feb 2013 10:01 CST
Sudan Pyramid_1

© Vincent Francigny/SEDAU
Among the discoveries are pyramids with a circle built inside them, cross-braces connecting the circle to the corners of the pyramid. Outside of Sedeinga only one pyramid is known to have been built in this way.

At least 35 small pyramids, along with graves, have been discovered clustered closely together at a site called Sedeinga in Sudan.

Discovered between 2009 and 2012, researchers are surprised at how densely the pyramids are concentrated. In one field season alone, in 2011, the research team discovered 13 pyramids packed into roughly 5,381 square feet (500 square meters), or slightly larger than an NBA basketball court.

They date back around 2,000 years to a time when a kingdom named Kush flourished in Sudan. Kush shared a border with Egypt and, later on, the Roman Empire. The desire of the kingdom’s people to build pyramids was apparently influenced by Egyptian funerary architecture.

At Sedeinga, researchers say, pyramid building continued for centuries. “The density of the pyramids is huge,” said researcher Vincent Francigny, a research associate with the American Museum of Natural History in New York, in an interview with LiveScience.

“Because it lasted for hundreds of years they built more, more, more pyramids and after centuries they started to fill all the spaces that were still available in the necropolis.”

Sudan Pyramid_2

© B-N Chagny, SEDAU/SFDAS
This aerial photo shows a series of pyramids and graves that a team of archaeologists has been exploring at Sedeinga in Sudan. Since 2009 they have discovered at least 35 small pyramids at the site, the largest being 22 feet (7 meters) in width.

Tia Ghose
LiveScience
Wed, 06 Feb 2013 16:00 CST
Jawbone

© Mirjana Roksandic
An ancient hominin jawbone unearthed in a Serbian cave may be more than half a million years old.

Scientists have unearthed a jawbone from an ancient human ancestor in a cave in Serbia.

The jawbone, which may have come from an ancient Homo erectus or a primitive-looking Neanderthal precursor, is more than 397,000 years old, and possibly more than 525,000 years old. The fossil, described today (Feb. 6) in the journal PLOS ONE, is the oldest hominin fossil found in this region of Europe, and may change the view that Neanderthals, our closest extinct human relatives, evolved throughout Europe around that time.

“It comes from an area where we basically don’t have anything that is known and well- published,” said study co-author Mirjana Roksandic, a bioarchaeologist from the University of Winnipeg in Canada. “Now we have something to start constructing a picture of what’s happening in this part of Europe at that time.”

Read Full Article Here

 

By Arturo Garcia
Monday, January 28, 2013 8:59 EST
 The Raw Story
A photo of bones and skulls scattered in a cemetery, taken in October. (AFP)

Police questioned a Southern California man after the people who bought his former home found a human skull and bones buried in the backyard, KNBC-TV reported Sunday.

“It’s scary to know,” one neighbor told the station. “You don’t know who that person was, how long they’ve been there.”

The new homeowners made their creepy discovery while digging in the backyard of their Santa Ana, California property. Authorities said the previous owner, Larry T. Dominguez, owned the home for more than 20 years, but had amassed more than 15 liens and judgements on the property. Neighbors described him as a “hoarder” who often had “strangers” living in the house. One neighbor said Dominguez lost the house after failing to make insurance payments.

KCBS-TV reported that the current owners, who were not identified, bought the property from Dominguez after it burned down in 2006. Santa Ana police said the owners were not being questioned in the investigation, and that an anthropologist was scheduled to examine the remains on Monday to determine how long they had been buried.

Watch KNBC’s report on the skull and bones found on the property, aired Sunday, Watch Video Here.

By Agence France-Presse
Tuesday, January 22, 2013 21:10 EST
The Raw Story
This undated handout illustration shows the DNA double helix. (AFP)

Present-day Asians and Native Americans are descended from a group of people who were already in China 40,000 years ago, according to an analysis of fossil DNA published this week.

The genetic analysis showed that the early modern humans in Beijing had already diverged genetically from the ancestors of modern-day Europeans.

The researchers took nuclear and mitochondrial DNA from a leg bone found in the Tianyuan Cave in China in 2003.

Using this, they reconstructed the genetic profile of the leg’s owner, a person who lived at a very interesting time in the history of modern humans, the researchers said in a statement Monday.

“This individual lived during an important evolutionary transition when early modern humans, who shared certain features with earlier forms such as Neanderthals, were replacing Neanderthals and Denisovans, who later became extinct,” said lead author Svante Paabo, of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.

 

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